Thursday, November 8, 2012


Philippians 3:
3 - 8

3 For we are the true circumcision, who worship God in spirit, and glory in Christ Jesus, and put no confidence in the flesh.
4 Though I myself have reason for confidence in the flesh also. If any other man thinks he has reason for confidence in the flesh, I have more:
5 circumcised on the eighth day, of the people of Israel, of the tribe of Benjamin, a Hebrew born of Hebrews; as to the law a Pharisee,
6 as to zeal a persecutor of the church, as to righteousness under the law blameless.
7 But whatever gain I had, I counted as loss for the sake of Christ.
8 Indeed I count everything as loss because of the surpassing worth of knowing Christ Jesus my Lord. For his sake I have suffered the loss of all things, and count them as refuse, in order that I may gain Christ

Psalms 105: 2 - 7
2 Sing to him, sing praises to him, tell of all his wonderful works!
3 Glory in his holy name; let the hearts of those who seek the LORD rejoice!
4 Seek the LORD and his strength, seek his presence continually!
5 Remember the wonderful works that he has done, his miracles, and the judgments he uttered,
6 O offspring of Abraham his servant, sons of Jacob, his chosen ones!
7 He is the LORD our God; his judgments are in all the earth.
Luke 15: 1 - 10
1 Now the tax collectors and sinners were all drawing near to hear him.
2 And the Pharisees and the scribes murmured, saying, "This man receives sinners and eats with them."
3 So he told them this parable:
4 "What man of you, having a hundred sheep, if he has lost one of them, does not leave the ninety-nine in the wilderness, and go after the one which is lost, until he finds it?
5 And when he has found it, he lays it on his shoulders, rejoicing.
6 And when he comes home, he calls together his friends and his neighbors, saying to them, `Rejoice with me, for I have found my sheep which was lost.'
7 Just so, I tell you, there will be more joy in heaven over one sinner who repents than over ninety-nine righteous persons who need no repentance.
8 "Or what woman, having ten silver coins, if she loses one coin, does not light a lamp and sweep the house and seek diligently until she finds it?
9 And when she has found it, she calls together her friends and neighbors, saying, `Rejoice with me, for I have found the coin which I had lost.'
10 Just so, I tell you, there is joy before the angels of God over one sinner who repents."


Vatican City, 8 November 2012 (VIS) - This morning in the Vatican, the Holy Father received participants in the plenary session of the Pontifical Academy of Sciences, which is meeting to examine the topic of: "Complexity and Analogy in Science: Theoretical, Methodological and Epistemological Aspects".
"In your discussions", said the Pope speaking English, "you have sought to examine, on the one hand, the ongoing dialectic of the constant expansion of scientific research, methods and specialisations and, on the other, the quest for a comprehensive vision of this universe in which human beings, endowed with intelligence and freedom, are called to understand, love, live and work".
"Such an interdisciplinary approach to complexity also shows too that the sciences are not intellectual worlds disconnected from one another and from reality but rather that they are interconnected and directed to the study of nature as a unified, intelligible and harmonious reality in its undoubted complexity. Such a vision has fruitful points of contact with the view of the universe taken by Christian philosophy and theology, with its notion of participated being, in which each individual creature, possessed of its proper perfection, also shares in a specific nature and this within an ordered cosmos originating in God’s creative Word. It is precisely this inbuilt “logical” and “analogical” organisation of nature that encourages scientific research and draws the human mind to discover the horizontal co-participation between beings and the transcendental participation by the First Being.
"The universe", the Holy Father added, "is not chaos or the result of chaos, rather, it appears ever more clearly as an ordered complexity which allows us to rise, through comparative analysis and analogy, from specialisation towards a more universalising viewpoint and vice versa. While the very first moments of the cosmos and life still elude scientific observation, science nonetheless finds itself pondering a vast set of processes which reveals an order of evident constants and correspondences and serves as essential components of permanent creation".
"In the great human enterprise of striving to unlock the mysteries of man and the universe, I am convinced of the urgent need for continued dialogue and cooperation between the worlds of science and of faith in the building of a culture of respect for man, for human dignity and freedom, for the future of our human family and for the long-term sustainable development of our planet. Without this necessary interplay, the great questions of humanity leave the domain of reason and truth, and are abandoned to the irrational, to myth, or to indifference, with great damage to humanity itself, to world peace and to our ultimate destiny", Pope Benedict concluded.
Vatican City, 8 November 2012 (VIS) - Given below is the text of a telegram sent by the Holy Father to Bishop Rodolfo Valenzuela Nunez of Vera Paz, president of the Episcopal Conference of Guatemala, for the recent earthquake there which has caused dozens of deaths and left hundreds injured throughout the country:
"Deeply saddened to hear the painful news of the earthquake which has left many dead and injured, as well as immeasurable material damage in your beloved country, I wish to express my spiritual closeness to all citizens. I offer fervent prayers for the eternal repose of the victims and pray to the Almighty that He may grant consolation to those affected by this terrible disaster, and inspire in everyone sentiments of fraternal solidarity to face this adversity.
"I also earnestly encourage the Christian communities, civil institutions and men and women of goodwill to lend their assistance to the victims, with generosity of spirit and willing charity".
Vatican City, 8 November 2012 (VIS) - This morning in the Holy See Press Office Cardinal Antonio Maria Veglio, president of the Pontifical Council for the Pastoral Care of Migrants and Itinerant Peoples, and Fr. Gabriele Ferdinando Bentoglio C.S., under secretary of the same dicastery, presented the twenty-third Congress of the Apostleship of the Sea, which will take place in the Vatican's New Synod Hall from 19 to 23 November. It will be attended by 410 participants, from 71 countries across all five continents, and the theme will be "New Evangelisation in the Maritime World".
"The Synod of Bishops and the Year of Faith present a challenge to the chaplains and volunteers of the Apostleship of the Sea who will meet at this congress in order to seek adequate pastoral responses to the problems faced by seafarers", said Cardinal Veglio. Among these problems, he identified the use of modern time-saving technological innovations which, while improving the speed and ease of work at sea, do not always bring corresponding improvements to the lives of seafarers, especially "those who accept employment contracts requiring them to spend many months living away from their families". In recent years this problem has been compounded by "the abandonment of ships and their crews in foreign ports without food or resources, and under increasingly restrictive measures that forbid seafarers from coming to land and expose them to abuse and exploitation. … Another issue is that of piracy, which causes long-term psychological trauma not only to seafarers but also to their families".
The international community has addressed this state of affairs by adopting the Maritime Labour Convention (2006), which "establishes minimum requirements regarding all aspects of working conditions on merchant ships, … and is considered a charter of rights for seafarers".
"The Apostleship of the Sea, through the work of its chaplains and volunteers, has always been concerned also with the welfare of fishermen and their families", continued the cardinal. "There are no precise statistics regarding the accidents affecting workers in this sector, but many international organisations consider fishing to be one of the most dangerous professions in the world. Moreover, aside from regulated work, we must not ignore the phenomenon of illegal, unreported and unregulated fishing which is not infrequently connected to human trafficking and forced labour", he said.
Fr. Gabriele Bentoglio then introduced the themes that will be covered during the congress. On the first day there will be a discussion on new evangelisation wherein participants will reflect in particular on the "the proclamation of the Gospel to a growing number of seafarers who belong to the Oriental rites of the Catholic Church or to the Orthodox Church, as well as those of other denominations, without forgetting assistance to seafarers who dock at ports in Muslim countries".
Effective engagement with the maritime industry will be the theme of the second day, which will begin with a presentation by the general secretary of the International Transport Workers Foundation (ITF), which brings together 708 unions representing over 5 million workers in all transport sectors, including over half of all seafarers throughout the world. This organisation shares three aims with the Apostleship of the Sea: "improving the life of seafarers, guaranteeing primary assistance, and responding to their spiritual and material needs".
Fishermen and women will be the theme of the third day. The Apostleship of the Sea will take the opportunity, to encourage the ratification of the Convention on Work in the Fishing Sector, which employs around 36 million people.
The fourth day will be dedicated to the theme of piracy at sea, a phenomenon which particularly affects the Indian Ocean and the waters adjacent to the Horn of Africa, as well as the coasts of Western Africa, South America and the Caribbean. Fr. Bentoglio explained that this "criminal activity is difficult to combat and there is great concern regarding the increase in the violent treatment of hostages and their prolonged detention". On the same day there will also be a discussion on cruises, a growth area in the maritime sector.
Finally, the congress will consider the theme of mission work, focusing on "ecumenical collaboration with other Christian denominations in many ports throughout the world, where possible without neglecting inter-religious cooperation". Finally, two important initiatives for the protection of seafarers will be presented: Seafarers' Rights International (SRI) which links the competence of the shipping industry to the legal world in order to promote the rights and legal protection of seafarers, and Maritime Humanitarian Piracy Response (MHPR), which assists sailors and their families in the event of traumatic incidents caused by pirate attacks.
Vatican City, 8 November 2012 (VIS) - Cardinal Jean-Louis Tauran, president of the Pontifical Council for Inter-religious Dialogue, has written a message to Hindus for the celebration of Diwali, the festival of lights, which this year falls on 13 November. The message is entitled, "Christians and Hindus: Forming the Young Generation into Peacemakers". The message also bears the signature of Fr. Miguel Angel Ayuso Guixot M.C.C.J., secretary of the council.
"At this point in time in human history, when various negative forces threaten the legitimate aspirations in many regions of the world for peaceful co-existence, we would like to use this cherished tradition of sharing with you a reflection to explore the responsibility that Hindus, Christians and others have in doing everything possible to form all people, especially the young generation, into peacemakers", reads the English-language text.
"To form young men and women into people of peace and builders of peace is an urgent summons to collective engagement and common action. If peace is to be authentic and enduring, it must be built on the pillars of truth, justice, love and freedom. ... Furthermore, in all education for peace, cultural differences ought surely to be treated as a richness rather than a threat or danger.
"The family is the first school of peace and the parents the primary educators for peace. ... In schools, colleges and universities, as young people mature by relating, studying and working with others from different religions and cultures, their teachers and others responsible for their training have the noble task of ensuring an education that respects and celebrates the innate dignity of all human beings and promotes friendship, justice, peace and cooperation for integral human development. With spiritual and moral values as the bedrock of education, it becomes their ethical imperative also to caution the students against ideologies that cause discord and division.
"While States and individual leaders in the social, political and cultural fields, generally have their own important roles to play in strengthening the education of the young, religious leaders in particular, by reason of their vocation to be spiritual and moral leaders, must continue to inspire the young generation to walk the path of peace and to become messengers of peace. Since all means of communication greatly shape the way people think, feel and act, those involved in these fields must, to the utmost possible extent, contribute to promoting thoughts, words, and works of peace. Indeed, young people themselves ought to live up to the ideals they set for others, by employing their freedom responsibly and by promoting cordial relationships for a culture of peace".
Vatican City, 8 November 2012 (VIS) - On 6 November, in the offices of the presidency of the Republic of Burundi in Bujumbura, in the presence of the Head of State Pierre Nkurunziza, the Holy See and the Republic of Burundi signed a framework agreement on "matters of common interest".
Signing for the Holy See as plenipotentiary was Archbishop Franco Coppola, apostolic nuncio to that country, and signing on behalf of the Republic of Burundi was Laurent Kavakure, Minister of Foreign Affairs and International Cooperation.
The framework agreement, acknowledging the good relations that have developed between the Holy See and Burundi over the last fifty years, defines and guarantees the legal status of the Catholic Church and regulates a number of areas, including canonical marriage, places of worship, Catholic institutions of instruction and education, the teaching of religion in schools, the Church's charitable activities, pastoral care of the armed forces and in prisons and hospitals, and the property and tax regime.
Vatican City, 8 November 2012 (VIS) - The Holy Father today received in audience:
- Archbishop Giuseppe Lazzarotto, apostolic nuncio to Israel and Cyprus, and apostolic delegate to Jerusalem and Palestine.
- Archbishop Antonio Franco, apostolic nuncio.
- Archbishop Michael Louis Fitzgerald, apostolic nuncio.


Agenzia Fides report - The earthquake of 7.4 on the Richter scale that hit yesterday, Wednesday, November 7, the northern part of Guatemala has caused 48 deaths. This was announced by the President of Guatemala, Otto Perez Molina, in a message to the whole nation, after having visited the disaster areas. According to the Head of State there are 155 who are seriously injured and 23 missing. From the information sent to Fides Agency, the displaced are about 17,000. The President said in his message that this earthquake is the second in intensity after the earthquake of February 4, 1976, which caused 23,000 deaths and more than one million homeless.
At a national level the "red alert" for fear of aftershocks has not yet been revoked. The earthquake caused the interruption of electricity, water and telecommunications in areas west of the country. Two landslides have interrupted the Inter-American highway preventing the passage to vehicles that were on their way to the affected areas. The earthquake was so strong that it was also felt in Mexico and El Salvador. (CE) (Agenzia Fides 08/11/2012)


Austrian Bishops meet in Brussels in a clear sign of support for Europe
For the first time ever, a meeting of a national Bishops’ Conference took place in Brussels. Under the Chairmanship of Cardinal Schönborn, the Plenary Assembly of the Austrian Bishops gathered together from 5 to 8 November in the COMECE premises to deliver a clear sign of support for Europe. “Europe needs Solidarity from all quarters “ explained Cardinal Schönborn.

unknownAs COMECE President, I am glad that such a meeting is taking place in the EU capital,” indicated Cardinal Marx. “It shows that the Catholic Church is willing to accompany the project of European integration at all levels: the universal one, through the representation of the Holy See to the EU; the European one, through the activities of the permanent COMECE Secretariat in Brussels; but also at the national level, through the participation of Catholic Bishops’ Conferences in the political and ethical debates on the EU. My wish therefore is that this meeting inspires other Bishops from the EU Member States to follow a similar initiative.“

Besides their Plenary Assembly, the Austrian Bishops conducted dialogues with several representatives from the EU institutions, among whom were EU Commissioner Johannes Hahn and the Vice President of the European Parliament Othmar Karas. All Dialogue partners from the EU institutions welcomed this positive initiative of the Austrian Bishops. It was considered to be very helpful, as well as unusual, that Church representatives were seeking a dialogue with the EU on the basis of a genuine interest and commitment to the European peace project. The EU representatives emphasised that Churches were an important partner in promoting and communicating European values.
Photos of the different meetings

unknownOn Thursday the Austrian Bishops, together with MEPs, inaugurated an exhibition in the European Parliament dedicated to Hildegard Burjan (1883-1933). She lived in Vienna and she is the first parliamentarian in the world to have been beatified by the Catholic Church - in January this year. As a politician, social pioneer and founder of the religious order “Caritas socialis” she has become today “an inspiring example for all those who, in the spirit of ‘love thy neighbour’, act as an advocate for people in need” emphasised Cardinal Christoph Schönborn, the Archbishop of Vienna and President of the Austrian Bishops’ Conference.

The Hildegard Burjan-Biography in PDF




Artist Wins for Work on Her Conversion from Buddhism to Catholicism

Catholic Communications, Sydney Archdiocese,
8 Nov 2012

A previous outstanding art work by Hyun Hee Lee entited Spring Waltz
An art work called Homage documenting Korean-born artist, Hyun-Hee Lee's conversion from Buddhism to Catholicism and paying homage to both, is the winner of the prestigious John Coburn Emerging Artist Award as part of the 2012 Blake Prizes for Religious and Spiritual Art announced this morning.
Hyun-Hee Lee has produced an outstanding and highly original work. Using pencil, ink, hanji paper, cotton thread and canvas, the work comprises a series of panels with each panel f eaturing texts of the New Testament translated into Korean have been cut into strips, folded and knotted into small bows and attached to canvas in a complex overlay.
"Homage embodies the respect I have for the two religions which have guided my life," she writes in notes that accompanied her entry explaining her inspiration for the work. "Converting from Buddhism to Catholicism I was encouraged to write the first four books of the New Testament. This a meditative and spiritual act I have repeated whilst paying homage to the Buddhist prayer ritual."

First ever winner of the Blake Prize in 1951 was Justin O'Brien for the triptych The Virgin Enthroned
The John Coburn Emerging Artist Award, which comes with $5000 in prize money, is the latest in a series of accolades and awards won by the artist.
In 2009 she was shortlisted for the John Olsen Life Drawing Prize, a feat she repeated the following year when she was also awarded the Bird Holcomb Honours Fine Arts Scholarship by Sydney's National Art School.
The Blake Prize for Religious and Spiritual Art and the Blake Prize for Poetry are hotly-contested and frequently controversial. But this year's choice of two artworks for the major prize of $20,000 has garnered widespread approval and seems unlikely to trigger a firestorm of criticism or charges of blasphemy that have frequently dogged the judge's choice for the Blake Art Prize in previous years.
The dual winners of this year's Blake Art Prize are Fabian Astore for "Threshold" an original and highly creative digital work on the role of ritual in people's lives, and Eveline Kotai whose "Writing on Air - Mantra" combines technical intricacy with spirituality for a triptych that uses Buddhist scriptures cut into tiny pieces and stitched onto panels.

Acclaimed painter Donald Friend won the Blake Art Prize in 1956
The three judges for this year's Blake Art Prize and other awards for art works were Associate Professor Roland Boer from the University of Newcastle; Felicity Fenner, curator of contemporary exhibitions at UNSW's College of Fine Arts; and leading Australian artist, Iranian born Hossein Valamanesh.
The judges say the two winners of this year's Blake Art Prize were chosen unanimously describing each work as "distinct in style and yet tend towards meditative in a world that has become increasingly grim."
The artist who has taken out this year's Maritime Union of Australia's Prize for Human Justice is Saif Al Murayati who uses a DVD in a work entitled Unfolding History in which he recaptures glimpses of his earliest memories at his grandmother's house in Iraq, followed by journey through refugee camps and his arrival and subsequent experiences in Australia. In this work, the artist also explores a refugee's feelings of the loss of his identity and using his own personal story, concludes the process of change is not unique.
The Blake Poetry Prize for 2012 has been given to award winning West Australian-based author, reviewer and poet, Graham Kershaw. Kershaw who won for $5000 poetry prize for his outstanding poem that addresses the mixed inheritance of white settlement in the Murchison district of WA and charts the remarkable story of Father John Hawes, the 1920s architect and priest, who took communion to Indigenous people who were reluctant and still too fearful to attend Mass inside a church.

Graham Kershaw's poem, Altar Rock explores the mixed inheritance of white settlement
The winners and finalists of this year's Blake Prize, including Graham Kershaw's poem, will go on display from tomorrow 9 November as part of the National Trust S. H. Ervin Gallery on Observatory Hill. The Exhibition of the award winners of the 61st Blake Prize 2012 will remain on exhibition until December 15.


AWEIL, November 06, 2012 (CISA) -UNHCR and IOM, in collaboration with the Governments of Sudan and South Sudan, today November 06, started airlifting 1,370 extremely vulnerable South Sudanese from the Sudanese capital Khartoum to Aweil in South Sudan’s Northern Bahr El Ghazal State.
The IOM-managed airlift, which is expected to comprise two 47-seat charter flights a day over the next two weeks, will support extremely vulnerable South Sudanese individuals (EVIs) and their families to return to South Sudan.
The Government of Sudan and the National Centre for IDPs and Voluntary Return, on behalf of the Return Task Force, expressed its appreciation to all entities facilitating the return process of the EVIs to South Sudan, particularly UNHCR, IOM, the Civil Aviation Authority and other relevant authorities.
“We will facilitate the airlift of the EVIs and sincerely appreciate the great role being played by UNHCR and IOM in the voluntary return process,” said Sudan’s Commissioner for Voluntary and Humanitarian Work, Mr Mohammed Sinari Mustafa.
The Humanitarian Attaché of the South Sudanese Embassy in Khartoum, Mr Deng Pouch Ngouth, also expressed his appreciation for IOM and UNHCR’s humanitarian efforts. “We are extremely pleased for this return opportunity, which is helping those who are particularly vulnerable. We look forward to welcoming all home and working to help them rebuild their lives,” he said.
The group includes EVIs who have been stranded in open areas of Khartoum for up to two years and whose health status puts them at high risk of developing complications if left living in the open or undertaking the arduous road journey south.
It also includes elderly and handicapped people, unaccompanied minors, vulnerable female-headed households and pregnant women with medical complications, whom UNHCR and the Sudanese authorities have jointly identified as requiring emergency return support.
UNHCR and IOM, together with Sudanese and South Sudanese authorities, will ensure that all individuals have made an informed choice to return and will travel in safety and dignity. IOM medical staff will screen all the returnees to ensure that they are fit to travel.
The returnees are amongst approximately 40,000 other South Sudanese who originally moved to open places in Khartoum since 2010, with the expectation of transportation assistance to South Sudan. Many gave up their jobs and homes in anticipation of the move and subsequently became stranded and at risk from prolonged exposure to the elements.
A UNHCR-coordinated assessment, undertaken with Sudan and South Sudan authorities in June 2012, reconfirmed that most of those stranded have a clear wish and intention to return to South Sudan, but do not have the means of making the journey, either for financial reasons or due to the insecurities of travel through conflict-affected zones. Thus lifesaving humanitarian assistance and protection must continue until a durable solution can be found.


Organised by Silsilah, the event will be held this week-end at the Harmony Village in Zamboanga. The recent agreement between the Filipino government and the Moro Islamic Liberation Front will be one of the issues discussed.

Zamboanga (AsiaNews) - In its annual meeting this coming week-end in Zamboanga (Mindanao), the Silsilah dialogue movement will focus on the peace process between the government and Muslim extremists as well as the training of Muslim and Christian leaders to fight poverty in tribal areas.

For Silsilah founder Fr Sebastiano d'Ambra, a missionary with the Pontifical Institute for Foreign Missions (PIME), the two-day event will bring together some 300 people from the across the predominantly Muslim island, including, "for the first time, Christian and Muslim members from Manila," the clergyman said.

Silsilah members will use the occasion to renew their pledge to spread the spirit of peace and interfaith dialogue in their respective communities, which are often embroiled in family, religious and ethnic feuds.

"Our movement," Fr d'Ambra said, "is based on the idea that God is the source of all dialogue. Silsilah offers a life of dialogue with everyone, Christians, Muslims and Tribals. It is aimed at young people who through our initiatives learn to trust and love one another through shared experiences in harmony, solidarity and peace."

The meeting will start this Saturday with a big dinner at Harmony Village and will continue with discussions on current affairs, like the recent agreement signed by the Filipino government and the Moro Islamic Liberation Front to set up an autonomous government in Bangsamoro.

On Sunday, plans for the Harmony Village Festival in February will also be presented.

This year's meeting is dedicated to Marilou Diaz-Abaya, a Silsilah member but also a filmmaker known across the country for her work in favour of Christian-Muslim dialogue who passed away on 8 October after a long battle with cancer. (S.C.)



Four Crowned Martyrs
Feast: November 8
Feast Day:
November 8

The old guidebooks to the tombs of the Roman martyrs make mention, in connection with the catacomb of Sts. Peter and Marcellinus on the Via Labicana, of the Four Crowned Martyrs (Quatuor Coronati), at whose grave the pilgrims were wont to worship (De Rossi, Roma sotterranea, I, 178-79). One of these itineraries, the "Epitome libri de locis sanctorum martyrum", adds the names of the four martyrs (in reality five): "IV Coronati, id est Claudius, Nicostratus, Simpronianus, Castorius, Simplicitus". These are the names of five martyrs, sculptors in the quarries of Pannonia (now a part of Austria-Hungary, south-west of the Danube), who gave up their lives for their Faith in the reign of Diocletian. The Acts of these martyrs, written by a revenue officer named Porphyrius probably in the fourth century, relates of the five sculptors that, although they raised no objections to executing such profane images as Victoria, Cupid, and the Chariot of the Sun, they refused to make a statue of Æsculapius for a heathen temple. For this they were condemned to death as Christians. They were put into leaden caskets and drowned in the River Save. This happened towards the end of 305. The foregoing account of the martyrdom of the five sculptors of Pannonia is substantially authentic; but later on a legend sprang up at Rome concerning the Quatuor Coronati, according to which four Christian soldiers (cornicularii) suffered martyrdom at Rome during the reign of Diocletian, two years after the death of the five sculptors. Their offence consisted in refusing to offer sacrifice to the image of Æsculapius. The bodies of the martyrs were interred at St. Sebastian and Pope Melchiades at the third milestone on the Via Labicana, in a sandpit where rested the remains of others who had perished for the Faith. Since the names of the four martyred soldiers could not be authentically established, Pope Melchiades commanded that, the date of their death (8 November) being the same as that of the Pannonian sculptors, their anniversary should be celebrated on that day, under the names of Sts. Claudius, Nicostratus, Symphorianus, Castor, and Simplicius. This report has no historic foundation. It is merely a tentative explanation of the name Quatuor Coronati, a name given to a group of really authenticated martyrs who were buried and venerated in the catatomb of Sts. Peter and Marcellinus, the real origin of which, however, is not known. They were classed with the five martyrs of Pannonia in a purely external relationship. Numerous manuscripts on the legend as well as the Roman Martyrology give the names of the Four Crowned Martyrs, supposed to have been revealed at a later date, as Secundus, Severianus, Carpoforus, and Victorius. But these four martyrs were not buried in Rome, but in the catacomb of Albano; their feast was celebrated on 7 August, under which date it is cited in the Roman Calender of Feasts of 354. These martyrs of Albano have no connection with the Roman martyrs described above. Of the four Crowned Martyrs we know only that they suffered death for the Faith and the place where they were buried. They evidently were held in great veneration at Rome, since in the fourth and fifth century a basilica was erected and dedicated in the Caelian Hill, probably in the neighbourhood of spot where tradition located their execution. This became one of the titular churches of Rome, was restored several times and still stands. It is first mentioned among the signatures of a Roman council in 595. Pope Leo IV ordered the relics removed, about 850, from the Via Labicana to the church dedicated to their memory, together with the relics of the five Pannonian martyrs, which had been brought to Rome at some period now unknown. Both group of maryrs are commemorated on 8 November.