Monday, March 25, 2013


John 12: 1 - 11

1Six days before the Passover, Jesus came to Bethany, where Laz'arus was, whom Jesus had raised from the dead.
2There they made him a supper; Martha served, and Laz'arus was one of those at table with him.
3Mary took a pound of costly ointment of pure nard and anointed the feet of Jesus and wiped his feet with her hair; and the house was filled with the fragrance of the ointment.
4But Judas Iscariot, one of his disciples (he who was to betray him), said,
5"Why was this ointment not sold for three hundred denarii and given to the poor?"
6This he said, not that he cared for the poor but because he was a thief, and as he had the money box he used to take what was put into it.
7Jesus said, "Let her alone, let her keep it for the day of my burial.
8The poor you always have with you, but you do not always have me."
9When the great crowd of the Jews learned that he was there, they came, not only on account of Jesus but also to see Laz'arus, whom he had raised from the dead.
10So the chief priests planned to put Laz'arus also to death,
11because on account of him many of the Jews were going away and believing in Jesus.


Vatican City, 25 March 2013 (VIS) – The Office of Liturgical Celebrations of the Supreme Pontiff has made public the calendar of celebrations at which Pope Francis is scheduled to preside during Holy Week:
28 March, Holy Thursday:9:30am, Chrism Mass in the Vatican Basilica
             5:30pm, Mass of the Lord's Supper at the Casal del Marmo youth detention centre

29 March, Good Friday:5:00pm, Celebration of the Lord's Passion in the Vatican Basilica
             9:15pm, Via Crucis at the Colosseum

30 March, Holy Saturday:8:30, Easter Vigil in the Vatican Basilica
31 March, Easter Sunday:10:15am, Easter Mass in St. Peter's Square
             12:00pm “Urbi et Orbi” Blessing
Vatican City, 25 March 2013 (VIS) - “Guarire dalla corruzione” (Recovering from Corruption) and “Umilta, la strada verso Dio” (Humility: The Road towards God) are the titles of the first two books by the new Pope to be published in Italian. Tomorrow, 26 March, they will be presented to the press at the Curci Hall of the offices of the Jesuit periodical “La Civilta Cattolica”.
Written when he was Archbishop of Buenos Aires, both texts draw upon the spirituality expressed by St. Ignatius of Loyola in his “Spiritual Exercises” to describe the profound mechanism of corruption in society—including the Church—and to note solutions, among which is the need for an ecclesial life characterized by fraternal charity.
“Guarire dalla corruzione” (orig. “Corrupcion y pecado”) is a text on morality. Based on an analysis of the spread of corruption in Argentine society and around the world, it locates the root of this evil within the heart. The text makes a novel distinction between the phenomena of corruption and sin. The afterword is written by Judge Pietro Grasso, president of the Italian Senate and former head of Italy's national anti-mafia prosecutor's agency.
“Umilta, la strada verso Dio” (orig. “Sobre la acusacion de si mismo”) has a strongly spiritual character. It introduces a text—widely cited in the book—by Dorotheus of Gaza, a 6th century Church Father, on humility. The book includes an appendix written by the prior of the ecumenical Monastic Community of Bose, Enzo Bianchi, who updates Dorotheus' message through the reading offered by Pope Francis.
Vatican City, 25 March 2013 (VIS) – The Square Garden (“Giardino Quadrato”), ordered by Pope Paul III Farnese who also commissioned Michelangelo to paint “The Last Judgment” in 1534, will be open to visitors of the Vatican Museums beginning today.
Created by the architect Jacopo Meleghino, it is a classical Italian garden with four lawns bordered by hedges and covers nearly a hectare of ground. It has now been furnished with benches, upon which visitors can take a break from their tour of the museums. From the garden you can see the dome of St. Peter, the grove that covers the Vatican hill, and the walls of the museums' Pinacotheca, which houses works by Raphael, da Vinci, and Caravaggio.
Visiting hours for the Square Garden will be the same as those of the Vatican Museums.
Vatican City, 25 March 2013 (VIS) – This morning, the Holy Father received in separate audiences:
Cardinal Marc Ouellet, prefect of the Congregation for Bishops,
Cardinal Joao Braz de Aviz, prefect of the Congregation for Institutes of Consecrated Life and Societies of Apostolic Life, and
Mr. Hector Federico Ling Altamirano, ambassador of Mexico, on his farewell visit.


Catholic Communications, Sydney Archdiocese,
22 Mar 2013
More than 100 young leaders from across Sydney attended Passover dinner hosted by the NSW Jewish Board of Deputies
Six young leaders from the Archdiocese of Sydney joined 100 others from different faiths, cultures and political parties for a unique Passover dinner last Wednesday which commemorates the Israelites' 40 years in the Wilderness when Moses led them from bondage in Egypt to the Promised Land.
Organised by the NSW Jewish Board of Deputies' Outreach program, the dinner was held five days ahead of the actual date of Passover this year, which according to the Jewish calendar begins at sunset on Tuesday, 25 March and ends at nightfall on Monday, 1 April.
One of the holiest and most significant religious festivals in the Jewish calendar, Passover is observed by Jews across the world whether they are Orthodox, religious, practicing or secular Jews.
Held at the University of NSW, Wednesday's Passover dinner for the city's young leaders, including many from Sydney's vibrant Jewish community, was a chance for those from other faiths, political alliances and cultures to gain a unique and very special insight into the ancient ritual of the Passover Seder.
Seder or the Passover feast is held on the eve of Passover Week or the Week of Unleavened Bread, as it is sometimes known, and includes the prayers, teachings and songs as well as ritual Passover dishes in a Jewish religious ritual that dates back more than 3000 years.
"The Passover Seder is full of rich symbolism with each course throughout the meal carrying a message, meaning or teaching from the Flight of the Children of Israel from Egypt," says James Van Schie, the Archdiocese of Sydney's Executive Officer for Renewal.
Bedelia Melville from the Catholic Archdiocese of Sydney's Commission for Ecumenism and Interfaith Relations asks a question
For Catholics and Christian denominations, the passages from Exodus read during the Passover Seder were a familiar part of their own religious heritage and like many at the dinner, James says he was struck by the many similarities between the Christian and Jewish faiths.
"We are all children of Abraham," he points out.
Not only do Christians and Jews study the Old Testament and are both familiar with Exodus and the other Books of the Bible, but Passover has special meaning for many of us with scholars citing Passover as the reason Christ and the Apostles gathered for The Last Supper.
James like all men at the dinner, no matter what their faith, wore a Yarmulke as a sign of respect. Accompanied by songs and readings, the meal began with the ritual foods of Passover such as bitter herbs, unleavened bread as there was no yeast in the wilderness, and "karpas" dipped in salt water. Karpas or fresh greens such as lettuces symbolises the abundance prior to slavery in Egypt and the salt water the hard labour the Israelites were forced to endure.
Wine was also drunk throughout the meal, with the first cup during the recital of the Kiddush blessing, the second during the retelling of the Passover story, the third cup of wine after the "holiday feast" of delicious dishes which come towards the end of the meal and finally the fourth cup of wine with the recital of the Hallel shortly before the end of the evening's celebrations.
James says as he listened to the ritual prayers, readings and songs, he reflected of the equally rich traditions of the Catholic Church and the role these play in Christian faith and teachings.
James van Schie (far left) listens with interest to the stories of the Passover traditions
"I reflected on Palm Sunday which will be celebrated this weekend when Catholics everywhere will carry palm fronts and crosses made from palm leaves and recall Christ's triumphant - and final journey - into Jerusalem," he says. "I also reflected on Holy Week, rituals such as the washing of the feet, The Stations of the Cross, fasting as we recall the passion of our Lord, the use of light during the Easter Vigil, the solemnity of Good Friday, the death of Our Lord and the joy of Easter Sunday, when we celebrate His Resurrection."
For Bedelia Melville, Interfaith Assistant with the Archdiocese's Commission for Ecumenism and Inter Religious Relations the Passover dinner for Sydney's young leaders, hosted by the NSW Jewish Board of Deputies, was yet another strong step forward in the promotion of tolerance, understanding and interfaith relations.
 "Like the others from the Archdiocese who attended the dinner, the evening offered a real insight into one of Judaism's most ancient and holy traditions. I'd never been to a Passover Seder before and was fascinated and honoured to be part of such a special evening," she says.
All at the dinner were also immensely moved by 93-year-old Eddie Jaku OAM who spoke poignantly of his incarceration at Auschwitz, the death of his parents during the Holocaust and the horror of this time.
In addition to learning more about the Jews and the Jewish faith, Bedelia says the Passover dinner provided a wonderful opportunity to meet a cross section of Sydney's young people and exchange ideas and make new friends.
"We wanted to honour leadership this year and thought the story of Moses leading his people out of bondage in Egypt served as a wonderful inspiration," explains Natalee Pozniak, Public Affairs Manager for the NSW Jewish Board of Deputies. "At Passover the story of Moses and the flight from Egypt is commemorated, and we believe Moses with his position as leader, his responsibility to his people and his vision for the future is a great inspiration for leaders everywhere."
For this reason she says young leaders from across a wide spectrum were invited to the dinner.
Passover evening was a celebration and gave a special insight into the Jewish Faith
In addition to James Van Schie, those who attended the dinner included the Archdiocese of Sydney's Promoter of Justice and Peace, Chantelle Ogilivie-Ellis; Justice and Peace Research and Project Officer, Christine d'Rozario; committee member and former president of St Peter's Society at the University of Sydney, honours student, Annemarie McCLaren; Strategic Relations Manager for Campion College, Michael Mendieta; senior student Samuel Green from Campion college.
Among the others who attended the dinner were representatives from Sydney's Jewish community, the Chinese Australian Forum, the Greek Orthodox Archdiocese, the Sikh Council of Australia, the Buddhist Council of NSW, the NSW Young Liberals, NSW Young Labor, the Muslim Women's Association, the Council of International Students, NSW Young Lawyers, members of various local councils, Young UN Women and the Council of Indian Australians.
Photos courtesy of Giselle Haber Photography


Agenzia Fides REPORT - The rebel coalition Seleka entered Bangui, the capital of the Central African Republic. The advance of the rebels toward the capital began on March 22 (see Fides 22/03/2013) and ended yesterday, Sunday, March 24. In the fighting, according to what the South African President Jacob Zuma said, 13 South African military died and 27 others were injured. The soldiers are part of the military contingent sent from Pretoria to help the deposed Central African President François Bozizé. The latter probably fled the Democratic Republic of Congo, where his family found shelter.
The head of Seleka, Michel Djotodia, declared himself Head of State and announced that the agreements in Libreville on 11 January will be respected. The coalition government led by Nicolas Tiangaye will therefore remain in office even if there are ministerial re-arrangements. Djotodia launched an appeal for an end to the looting and to restore security. Several homes were looted by the rebels, by the soldiers and police of the old regime who removed their uniforms, as well as thugs of various kinds.
According to several observers, the stability of the Country, however, is still far away. Seleka is in fact a coalition of various rebel groups, whose only bond was the expulsion of Bozizé. Now that Djotodia declared himself President, divisions emerge. Among his domestic opponents there is Nourradine Adam, the head of one of the groups that form Seleka, the CPJP (Convention of Patriots for Justice and Peace), and Firmin Findiro, former Minister of Justice dismissed by Bozizé. His opponents complain that the proximity of the Chadian President Idriss Déby Djotodia Itno, whose military contingent in Central Africa did not stop the rebel advance, unlike the South African troops. France has reinforced its military mission, whose job, says Paris, is limited to the protection of French citizens in the Country.
In another context, that of Mali, the French troops fight side by side against the jihadi groups. (L.M.) (Agenzia Fides 25/03/2013)


by Sumon Francis Gomes
The 19th head of state has died after a long illness at the age of 84 years. A man "above all parties and opinions," was part of crucial moments in the recent history of Bangladesh: from independence in 1971 to the emergency government in 2007 to steer the country toward democratic and transparent elections.

Dhaka (AsiaNews) - "The people of Bangladesh has lost their guardian" said Sheikh Hasina, Prime Minister of Bangladesh, bidding farewell to Zillur Rahman, president of the country, who died at 84 from respiratory problems. A figure "above all parties and opinions," who helped to "establish democracy in the country."
Rahman died on March 20 at the Mount Elizabeth Hospital in Singapore, where he was hospitalized from March 11. The news of his death shocked the country, who considered him one of the "founding fathers" for his presence at all times during the founding moments of the People's Republic of Bangladesh.
Born March 9, 1929 at Poirtala (Brahmanbaria district), Zillur Rahman began his political career in the Bengali language movement of 1952, the first sign of trouble between West Pakistan and East Pakistan. In 1971, he supported the civil disobedience movement led by the "Founding Father" Sheikh Mujibur Rahman, who was killed in 1973. After the war of liberation he became the Secretary General of the Awami League (1972), the Socialist and Secularist Party that would alternate with the Bangladesh Nationalist Party (BNP, nationalist) to lead the country. His role was also recognized in emergency government  imposed on 11 January 2007 (with the support of the army, ed) to lead the country towards democratic and transparent elections.
From 1996 to 2001 he was a Minister in the Awami League Government, led by Sheikh Hasina, daughter of Mujibur Rahman and current Prime Minister of the country. On 11 February 2009 Zillur Rahman became the 19th President of Bangladesh.

According to the Constitution, the new head of state should be elected within 90 days after the death of his predecessor. The election is scheduled for June 18, 2013.



The Annunciation
Feast: March 25

Feast Day:March 25
This great festival takes its name from the happy tidings brought by the angel Gabriel to the Blessed Virgin Mary, concerning the incarnation of the Son of God. It commemorates the most important embassy that was ever known: an embassy sent by the King of kings, performed by one of the chief princes of his heavenly court; directed, not to  the kings or emperors of the earth, but to a poor, unknown, retired virgin, who, being endowed with the most angelic purity of soul and body, being withal perfectly humble and devoted to God, was greater in his eyes than all the sceptres in the world could make a universal monarch. Indeed God, by the choice which he is pleased to make of a poor virgin, for the accomplishment of the greatest of all mysteries and graces, clearly demonstrates that earthly diadems, dignities, and treasures are of no consideration with him; and that perfect humility and sanctity alone constitute true greatness. God, who is almighty, can do all things by himself, without making use of the concurrence of creatures. Nevertheless he vouchsafes. in his exterior works, most frequently to use their  co-operation. If he reveals his will and speaks to men, it is by the intervention of his prophets, and these he often enlightens by the ministry of angels. Many of the ancient patriarchs were honored by him with the most sublime commissions. By Moses he delivered his people from the Egyptian slavery, by him he gave them his law, and he appointed him mediator in his alliance with them. When the Son of God became man, he could have taken upon him our nature without the co-operation of any creature; but was pleased to be born of a woman. In the choice of her whom he raised to this most sublime of all dignities to which any pure creature could be exalted, he pitched upon her who, by the riches of his grace and virtues, was of all others the most holy and the most perfect. The design of this embassy of the archangel is as extraordinary as the persons concerned in it. It is to give a Saviour to the world, a victim of propitiation to the sinner, a model to the just, a son to this Virgin, remaining still a virgin, and a new nature to the Son of God, the nature of man, capable of suffering pain and anguish in order to the satisfaction of God's justice for our transgressions. And the Son of God being to take a human body formed of her substance, the Holy Ghost, who, by a power all-divine, was to her in place of a spouse, was not content to render her body capable of giving life to a Man-God, but likewise enriched her soul with a fulness of grace, that there might be a sort of proportion between the cause and the effect, and she the better qualified to co-operate towards this mystery of sanctity.
The angel begins his address to her with <Hail! full of grace.>This is not the first time that angels appeared to women: but we find not that they were ever treated with that respect which the angel Gabriel shows to Mary. Sarah and Agar were visited by these celestial spirits, but not with an honour like that wherewith the angel on this occasion addresses the Blessed Virgin, saying, <Hail! full of grace.> He considers her as the greatest object among creatures of God's favour, affection, and complacency. He admires in her those wonderful effects of the divine liberality, those magnificent gifts and graces, those exalted virtues, which have placed the very foundation of her spiritual edifice on the holy mountains, in a degree of perfection surpassing that of all pure creatures He admires that perfect gratitude with which she always received God's grace, and her perfect fidelity in corresponding with it, and advancing in sanctity, by the help thereof, with a solicitude answerable to her love and gratitude, for the preservation and increase of so inestimable a treasure. <Full of grace.> The first encomium which St. John gives us of the glory of the < Word made flesh> is, that he was <full of grace and truth.> God forbid that we should say that Mary was full of grace in the same manner as her Son; for he is the very source and origin of it, <from whose fulness all> the saints, Mary not excepted, <have received> whatever degree they possess of grace and sanctity. St. Luke assures us also that St. Stephen was full of grace and the Holy Ghost, but it was a fullness in regard to a less capacity, and in relation to a lower function. Moreover, to St. Stephen and other saints, who have received large portions of heavenly grace, we may say, in those other words of the angel, <You have found favour with God>: but those very favours, though very great in themselves, were not to be compared with that which from all eternity was reserved for Mary. God made the saints the object of his gratuitous election, and he qualified them with his graces to be the messengers of his Son, the preachers and witnesses of his gospel; but Mary was his choice, and was furnished with his graces to bear the most illustrious, the most exalted title of honour that heaven could bestow on a pure creature, to conceive of her proper substance the divine Word made man. If then the grace of God so raises a person in worth and merit that there is not any prince on earth who deserves to be compared with a soul that is dignified with the lowest degree of sanctifying grace; what shall we say or think of Mary, in whom the fullness of grace was only a preparation to her maternity? What shall we think of ourselves, (but in an opposite light,) who wilfully expose this greatest of all treasures on so many occasions to be lost, whereas we ought wilfully to forego and renounce all the advantages and pleasures of this world, rather than hazard the loss of the least degree of it, and be most fervent in our supplications to God for the gaining, preserving, and increasing so great a treasure: forasmuch as it is a pledge of God's love, a participation of his Spirit, and a title to the possession of his heavenly kingdom. But who can be surprised at those inestimable treasures which God, on this occasion, with so liberal a hand, bestows on Mary, if he considers the purport of the following words of the angel: <The Lord is with thee>. He is with her in a manner more intimate, more perfect, and more divine than he ever was or will be with any other creature. He is with her, not only by his essence, by his presence, by his power; for he is thus with all his creatures: He is with her, not only by his < actual> grace touching her heart and enlightening her understanding; he is thus many times with the sinner: He is with her, not only with his sanctifying grace, making her agreeable in his sight, and placing her in the number of his children; he is present in this manner with all the just: He is with her, not only by a special protection guiding her in his ways, and leading her securely to the term of salvation; this he does for the elect: but he is also with her by a substantial and corporeal presence, residing personally and really in her. In her, and of her substance, is this day formed his adorable body; in her he reposes for nine months, with his whole divinity and humanity. It is in this ineffable manner that he is with Mary, and with none but Mary. O glorious Virgin, thrice happy Mother, from this source and ocean of all grace what heavenly blessings in so long a space of time must have flowed upon you! and what honors must be due to one so nearly allied to our great Creator! What intercession so prevalent as that of the <Mother of divine grace!>
The angel concludes his address with these words: < Blessed art thou among women>.<Blessed>, as being chosen preferably to all of her sex, to be the glorious instrument, in the hand of God, for removing the maledictions laid on mankind in punishment of their sins, and in communicating to them the source of all good. And on this account it was that < all> succeeding <generations>, as she foretold of herself, < should call her Blessed;> regarding her as the centre in which all the blessings of the Old and New Testament are drawn together.
Though we are obliged to consider the eminent quality of Mother of God as the source of all other graces bestowed on the Blessed Virgin, it must yet be owned it is not the greatest, and that she was happier in loving Jesus Christ than in having conceived him and brought him forth. She is < blessed among women> and above the rest of creatures, not precisely on account of her maternity, but because she received a fulness of grace proportioned to the dignity to which she was chosen. So the" according to the remark of the holy fathers, she was happier for her sanctity than for her dignity: for her virtues than for her privileges. Among her virtues, that of purity seems particularly deserving of notice on this solemnity, as the epistle for this festival records that memorable prophecy of Isaias, <That a virgin should conceive and bring forth a son>;8 the most remarkable of the signs God had promised the world for making known the accomplishment of the mystery of man's redemption. And indeed right reason seemed to require that she, who was to be the mother of God, should be of an integrity above reproach, and incapable of yielding to any solicitation: it was highly fit her virginity should be perfectly pure, and removed as far as possible from the least suspicion of blemish. For this reason, the moment God had chosen her to be his mother, he exacted from her the most authentic proofs of an inviolable attachment to purity. Thus, it is not in a crowd, or in idle conversation, but in a retreat, that the angel finds her. It is not from the distraction of diversions and entertainments that he calls her aside to deliver his message: no; she is alone in her house, with the door shut; "and," as St. Ambrose says, "he must be an angel that gets entrance there." a Hence, according to the same holy father, it was not the angel's appearance that gave her trouble, for he will not have it to be doubted but heavenly visions and a commerce with the blessed spirits had been familiar to her. But what alarmed her, he says, was the angel's appearing in human form, in the shape of a young man. What might add to her fright on the occasion was his addressing her in the strain of praise, which kind of words flattery often puts in the mouths of ill-designing men. And how few, alas, are able to withstand such dangers! But Mary, guarded by her modesty, is in confusion at expressions of this sort, and dreads the least appearance of deluding flattery. Such high commendations make her cautious how she answers, till in silence she has more fully considered of the matter: <She revolved in her mind>, says St. Luke, <what manner of salutation this should be.> Ah, what numbers of innocent souls have been corrupted for want of using the like precautions! Mary is retired, but how seldom now-a-days are young virgins content to stay at home! Mary is silent when commended, and answered not a word till she had well considered what she ought to say: but now it is to be feared that young women  never think so little as when they ale entertained with flattery. Every soothing word is but too apt to slide from the ear to the heart; and who can tell what multitudes, by their unwary methods, suffer shipwreck of their modesty, and then of their purity. For how can this be long-lived after having lost all its guardians? No, it cannot be. Unless a virgin be assiduous in prayer and spiritual reading, modest in her dress, prudent and wary in her choice of company, and extremely careful in the government of her eyes and tongue when she happens to be in conversation with the other sex, there is but too much reason to apprehend that either her heart is already betrayed, or in danger of being vanquished by the next assault of her spiritual enemy. A dread of, and a speedy flight from all dangerous occasions is the only security of virtue and innocence. Presumption wants no other tempter. Even Mary, though confirmed in grace, was only secure by this fear and distrust in herself. A second cause why Mary was disturbed at the words of the angel was because they contained her praises. Humble souls always tremble and sink with confusion in their own minds when they hear themselves commended; because they are deeply penetrated with a sense of their own weakness and insufficiency, and they consider contempt as their due. They know that the glory of all gifts belongs solely to God, and they justly fear lest the poison of praise should insinuate itself into their minds; being sensible how infinitely dangerous honors and flattery are to humility. Are these our sentiments? Do we never speak of ourselves to our own advantage? Do we never artfully praise ourselves, or willingly lend an ear to what flatterers say to applaud us? Are we troubled when we hear ourselves praised? What gives trouble but to too many is, that men give them not what they take to be their right; and that their praises equal not the notion they have framed of their merits. The high eulogiums bestowed on Mary by the angel she answers no otherwise than by a profound silence, by a saintly trouble of mind, which, with a modest blush, appears in her countenance. The angel, to calm her disquiets, says to her, <Fear not, Mary, for thou hast found favour before God.> He then informs her that she is to conceive and bring forth a son whose name shall be Jesus, who shall be great, and the son of the Most High, and possessed of the throne of David, her illustrious ancestor. Mary, who according to St. Austin had consecrated her virginity to God by a vow, is not at all weakened by the prospect of such a dignity in her resolution of living a virgin; but, on the contrary, out of a just concern to know how she may comply with the will of God without prejudice to her vow, neither moved by curiosity, nor doubting of the miracle or its possibility, she inquires, <How shall this be?> Nor does she give her consent till the heavenly messenger acquaints her that it is to be a work of the Holy Ghost, who, in making her fruitful, will not entrench in the least upon her virginal purity, but cause her to be a mother, still remaining, as she desires, a pure virgin.
Moreover, had not Mary been deep-rooted in humility, what impression must not these great promises have made in her heart, at a time especially when the first transports are so apt to overflow the soul on the sudden news of an unexpected glory. The world knows, from too frequent experience, how strongly the promise and expectation of new dignities raise the  spirits, and alter the words, the looks, and the whole carriage of proud men. But Mary is still the same, or rather much more lowly and meek in spirit upon the accession of this unparalleled dignity. She sees no cause to pride herself in her virtues, graces, and privileges, knowing that the glory of all these are due only to the divine Author and Bestower of them. In submission, therefore, to God's will, without any further inquiries, she expresses her assent in these humble but powerful words: <Behold the handmaid of the Lord, be it done to me according to thy word.> What faith and confidence does her answer express! What profound humility and perfect obedience! She was saluted Mother of God, yet uses no word of dignity, but styles herself nothing more than his handmaid, to be commanded and employed by him as he shall think fittest. The world, as heaven had decreed, was not to have a Saviour till she had given her consent to the angel's proposal; she gives it, and behold the power and efficacy of her submissive fiat! That moment, the mystery of love and mercy promised to mankind four thousand years before, foretold by so many prophets, desired by so many saints, is wrought on earth. That moment, the Word of God is for ever united to humanity; the soul of Jesus Christ, produced from nothing, begins to enjoy God, and to know all things past, present, and to come: that moment, God begins to have an adorer who is infinite, and the world a mediator who is omnipotent; and, to the working of this great mystery, Mary alone is chosen to co-operate by her free assent. The prophets represent the earth as moved out of its place, and the mountains as melting away before the very countenance of God looking down upon the world. Now that he descends in person, who would not expect that the whole heavens should be moved? But another kind of appearance best suited his coming on this occasion, which was with the view of curing our pride by his wonderful humiliations, and thereby repair the injury the Godhead had suffered from our unjust usurpation; and not to show forth his grandeur, and display his all-glorious majesty. How far are the ways of God above those of men! how greatly does divine wisdom differ from human folly! how does every circumstance in this mystery confound the pride, the pomp, and the vain titles of worldly grandeur, and recommend to us the love of silence and sincere humility! Shall the disciples of Christ have other sentiments?
But what tongue can express the inward feelings and affections which; then filled the glowing heart of the most pure Mother of God? What light shone in her understanding to penetrate the mysteries and the excess of the unfathomed goodness of God! what ardours of holy love inflamed her will! what jubilee filled her soul! Let men redeemed exult and praise, returning to God their best homages of adoration, thanksgiving, and love. It is for this duty that the church has appointed this present festival, which we ought chiefly to consecrate to the contemplation of this adorable mystery with hymns of love, praise, and thanksgiving. It was the hope and comfort of all the ancient saints, and the great object of all their earnest prayers, tears, and sighs. The prophets had a view to it in all their predictions, this being the principal point in all the wonderful revelations of God made to his church since the fall of Adam in Paradise, whom he immediately comforted with a promise and glimpse of this glorious mercy. Every ordinance in the law which he gave the Jews was typical, and had either an immediate or at least an indirect relation to Christ and our redemption by him. Among the numberless religious rites and sacrifices which were prescribed them, there was not one which did not in some manner represent or allude to this mystery. How high an idea ought this circumstance to give us of its incomprehensible greatness, which its nature and wonderful effects and fruits must enhance beyond the power of words! We are lost in astonishment when we contemplate this prodigy of omnipotence and infinite wisdom and mercy, and adore it in raptures and silence.
Gerson cries out on this mystery: "What ought every heart to say or think! every religious, every loving and faithful heart? It ought to rejoice exceedingly in this singular comfort, and to salute you with Gabriel, < O blessed among women.> On this day is the Saviour of mankind, true God and man, conceived in the womb of Mary. This day our Lady received a name more sublime than can be understood, and the most noble of all names possible after that of her Son, by which she is called the Mother of God. On this day the greatest of miracles is wrought. Hear the wonders of love and mercy on this festival: God is made man; and man, in the divine person, God: he that is immortal is become mortal, and the Eternal is born in time. A virgin is a mother a woman the mother of God; a creature has conceived her Creator!" St. Peter Chrysologus expresses the truth of this mystery as follows: "One virgin so receives and contains God in the lodging of her breast as to procure peace for the earth, glory for heaven, salvation for the lost, life for the dead, an alliance of those on earth with the blessed in heaven, and the commerce of God with the flesh."
From the example of the Virgin Mary in this mystery, how ardent a love ought we to conceive of purity and humility! According to St. Gregory of Nyssa, and St. Jerome, she would rather be the spouse of God in spirit, by spotless virginity, than his mother in the flesh; and so acceptable was this her disposition to God, that she deserved immediately to hear, that she should bring forth the Son of the Most High, still remaining a most pure virgin: nor would God have otherwise raised her to this astonishing honor. The Holy Ghost is invited by purity to dwell in souls, but is chased away by the filth of the contrary vice. The dreadful havoc which it now-a-days makes among Christian souls, calls for torrents of tears, and is the source of the infidelity and universal desolation which spreads on every side. Humility is the foundation of a spiritual life. By it Mary was prepared for the extraordinary graces. and all virtues with which she was enriched, and for the eminent dignity of Mother of God. St. Austin says that, according to an ancient tradition, this mystery was completed on the 25th of March. Both eastern and western churches celebrate it on this day, and have done so at least ever since the fifth century. This festival is mentioned by Pope Gelasius I, in 492. The council of Constantinople, in 692, orders the <Missa praesanctificatorum>, as on Good Friday, to be said on all days in Lent, except Saturdays, Sundays, and the feast of the Annunciation. The tenth council of Toledo, in 656, calls this solemnity "the festival of the Mother of God," by way of excellence. To praise the divine goodness for this incomprehensible mystery of the incarnation, Urban II, in the council of Clermont, in 1095, ordered the bell to be rung every day for the triple Angelical Salutation, called Angelus Domini, at morning, noon, and night; which practice of devotion several popes have recommended by indulgences, as  John XXII, Calixtus III, Paul III, Alexander VII and Clement X. The late Benedict XIII has augmented them to those who, at the aforesaid hours, shall devoutly recite this prayer kneeling