Sunday, September 16, 2018

Saint September 17 : St. Robert Bellarmine : Patron of #Catechists, #Canon #Lawyers and #Catechumens : Doctor


(Also, "Bellarmino"). A distinguished Jesuit theologian, writer, and cardinal, born at Montepulciano, 4 October, 1542; died 17 September, 1621. His father was Vincenzo Bellarmino, his mother Cinthia Cervini, sister of Cardinal Marcello Cervini, afterwards Pope Marcellus II. He was brought up at the newly founded Jesuit college in his native town, and entered the Society of Jesus on 20 September, 1560, being admitted to his first vows on the following day. The next three years he spent in studying philosophy at the Roman College, after which he taught the humanities first at Florence, then at Mondovì. In 1567 he began his theology at Padua, but in 1569 was sent to finish it at Louvain, where he could obtain a fuller acquaintance with the prevailing heresies. Having been ordained there, he quickly obtained a reputation both as a professor and a preacher, in the latter capacity drawing to his pulpit both Catholics and Protestants, even from distant parts. In 1576 he was recalled to Italy, and entrusted with the chair of Controversies recently founded at the Roman College. He proved himself equal to the arduous task, and the lectures thus delivered grew into the work "De Controversiis" which, amidst so much else of excellence, forms the chief title to his greatness. This monumental work was the earliest attempt to systematize the various controversies of the time, and made an immense impression throughout Europe, the blow it dealt to Protestantism being so acutely felt in Germany and England that special chairs were founded in order to provide replies to it. Nor has it even yet been superseded as the classical book on its subject-matter, though, as was to be expected, the progress of criticism has impaired the value of some of its historical arguments.
In 1588 Bellarmine was made Spiritual Father to the Roman College, but in 1590 he went with Cardinal Gaetano as theologian to the embassy Sixtus V was then sending into France to protect the interests of the Church amidst the troubles of the civil wars. Whilst he was there news reached him that Sixtus, who had warmly accepted the dedication of his "De Controversiis", was now proposing to put its first volume on the Index. This was because he had discovered that it assigned to the Holy See not a direct but only an indirect power over temporals. Bellarmine, whose loyalty to the Holy See was intense, took this greatly to heart; it was, however, averted by the death of Sixtus, and the new pope, Gregory XIV, even granted to Bellarmine's work the distinction of a special approbation. Gaetano's mission now terminating, Bellarmine resumed his work as Spiritual Father, and had the consolation of guiding the last years of St. Aloysius Gonzaga, who died in the Roman College in 1591. Many years later he had the further consolation of successfully promoting the beatification of the saintly youth. Likewise at this time he sat on the final commission for the revision of the Vulgate text. This revision had been desired by the Council of Trent, and subsequent popes had laboured over the task and had almost brought it to completion. But Sixtus V, though unskilled in this branch of criticism, had introduced alterations of his own, all for the worse. He had even gone so far as to have an impression of this vitiated edition printed and partially distributed, together with the proposed Bull enforcing its use. He died, however, before the actual promulgation, and his immediate successors at once proceeded to remove the blunders and call in the defective impression. The difficulty was how to substitute a more correct edition without affixing a stigma to the name of Sixtus, and Bellarmine proposed that the new edition should continue in the name of Sixtus, with a prefatory explanation that, on account of aliqua vitia vel typographorum vel aliorum which had crept in, Sixtus had himself resolved that a new impression should be undertaken. The suggestion was accepted, and Bellarmine himself wrote the preface, still prefixed to the Clementine edition ever since in use. On the other hand, he has been accused of untruthfulness in stating that Sixtus had resolved on a new impression. But his testimony, as there is no evidence to the contrary, should be accepted as decisive, seeing how conscientious a man he was in the estimation of his contemporaries; and the more so since it cannot be impugned without casting a slur on the character of his fellow-commissioners who accepted his suggestion, and of Clement VIII who with full knowledge of the facts gave his sanction to Bellarmine's preface being prefixed to the new edition. Besides, Angelo Rocca, the Secretary of the revisory commissions of Sixtus V and the succeeding pontiffs, himself wrote a draft preface for the new edition in which he makes the same statement: (Sixtus) "dum errores ex typographiâ ortos, et mutationes omnes, atque varias hominum opiniones recognoscere cœpit, ut postea de toto negotio deliberare atque Vulgatam editionem, prout debebat, publicare posset, morte præventus quod cœperat perficere non potuit". This draft preface, to which Bellarmine's was preferred, is still extant, attached to the copy of the Sixtine edition in which the Clementine corrections are marked, and may be seen in the Biblioteca Angelica at Rome. In 1592 Bellarmine was made Rector of the Roman College, and in 1595 Provincial of Naples. In 1597 Clement VIII recalled him to Rome and made him his own theologian and likewise Examiner of Bishops and Consultor of the Holy Office. Further, in 1599 he made him Cardinal-Priest of the title of Santa Maria in viâ, alleging as his reason for this promotion that "the Church of God had not his equal in learning". He was now appointed, along with the Dominican Cardinal d'Ascoli, an assessor to Cardinal Madruzzi, the President of the Congregation de Auxiliis, which had been instituted shortly before to settle the controversy which had recently arisen between the Thomists and the Molinists concerning the nature of the concord between efficacious grace and human liberty. Bellarmine's advice was from the first that the doctrinal question should not be decided authoritatively, but left over for further discussion in the schools, the disputants on either side being strictly forbidden to indulge in censures or condemnations of their adversaries. Clement VIII at first inclined to this view, but afterwards changed completely and determined on a doctrinal definition. Bellarmine's presence then became embarrassing, and he appointed him to the Archbishopric of Capua just then vacant. This is sometimes spoken of as the cardinal's disgrace, but Clement consecrated him with his own hands--an honour which the popes usually accord as a mark of special regard. The new archbishop departed at once for his see, and during the next three years set a bright example of pastoral zeal in its administration.
In 1605 Clement VIII died, and was succeeded by Leo XI who reigned only twenty-six days, and then by Paul V. In both conclaves, especially that latter, the name of Bellarmine was much before the electors, greatly to his own distress, but his quality as a Jesuit stood against him in the judgment of many of the cardinals. The new pope insisted on keeping him at Rome, and the cardinal, obediently complying, demanded that at least he should be released from an episcopal charge the duties of which he could no longer fulfil. He was now made a member of the Holy Office and of other congregations, and thenceforth was the chief advisor of the Holy See in the theological department of its administration. Of the particular transactions with which his name is most generally associated the following were the most important: The inquiry de Auxiliis, which after all Clement had not seen his way to decide, was now terminated with a settlement on the lines of Bellarmine's original suggestion. 1606 marked the beginning of the quarrel between the Holy See and the Republic of Venice which, without even consulting the pope, had presumed to abrogate the law of clerical exemption from civil jurisdiction and to withdraw the Church's right to hold real property. The quarrel led to a war of pamphlets in which the part of the Republic was sustained by John Marsiglio and an apostate monk named Paolo Sarpi, and that of the Holy See by Bellarmine and Baronius. Contemporaneous with the Venetian episode was that of the English Oath of Alliance. In 1606, in addition to the grave disabilities which already weighed them down, the English Catholics were required under pain of prœmunire to take an oath of allegiance craftily worded in such wise that a Catholic in refusing to take it might appear to be disavowing an undoubted civil obligation, whilst if he should take it he would be not merely rejecting but even condemning as "impious and heretical" the doctrine of the deposing power, that is to say, of a power, which, whether rightly or wrongly, the Holy See had claimed and exercised for centuries with the full approval of Christendom, and which even in that age the mass of the theologians of Europe defended. The Holy See having forbidden Catholics to take this oath, King James himself came forward as its defender, in a book entitled "Tripoli nodo triplex cuneus", to which Bellarmine replied in his "Responsio Matthfi Torti". Other treatises followed on either side, and the result of one, written in denial of the deposing power by William Barclay, an English jurist resident in France, was that Bellarmine's reply to it was branded by the Regalist Parlement of Paris. Thus it came to pass that, for following the via media of the indirect power, he was condemned in 1590 as too much of a Regalist and in 1605 as too much of a Papalist. Bellarmine did not live to deal with the later and more serious stage of the Galileo case, but in 1615 he took part in its earlier stage. He had always shown great interest in the discoveries of that investigator, and was on terms of friendly correspondence with him. He took up too--as is witnessed by his letter to Galileo's friend Foscarini--exactly the right attitude towards scientific theories in seeming contradiction with Scripture. If, as was undoubtedly the case then with Galileo's heliocentric theory, a scientific theory is insufficiently proved, it should be advanced only as an hypothesis; but if, as is the case with this theory now, it is solidly demonstrated, care must be taken to interpret Scripture only in accordance with it. When the Holy Office condemned the heliocentric theory, by an excess in the opposite direction, it became Bellarmine's official duty to signify the condemnation to Galileo, and receive his submission. Bellarmine lived to see one more conclave, that which elected Gregory XV (February, 1621). His health was now failing, and in the summer of the same year he was permitted to retire to Sant' Andrea and prepare for the end. His death was most edifying and was a fitting termination to a life which had been no less remarkable for its virtues than for its achievements. His spirit of prayer, his singular delicacy of conscience and freedom from sin, his spirit of humility and poverty, together with the disinterestedness which he displayed as much under the cardinal's robes as under the Jesuit's gown, his lavish charity to the poor, and his devotedness to work, had combined to impress those who knew him intimately with the feeling that he was of the number of the saints. Accordingly, when he died there was a general expectation that his cause would be promptly introduced. And so it was, under Urban VIII in 1627, when he became entitled to the appellation of Venerable. But a technical obstacle, arising out of Urban VIII's own general legislation in regard to beatifications, required its prorogation at that time. Though it was reintroduced on several occasions (1675, 1714, 1752, and 1832), and though on each occasion the great preponderance of votes was in favour of the beatification, a successful issue came only after many years. This was partly because of the influential character of some of those who recorded adverse votes, Barbarigo, Casante, and Azzolino in 1675, and Passionei in 1752, but still more for reasons of political expediency, Bellarmine's name being closely associated with a doctrine of papal authority most obnoxious to the Regalist politicians of the French Court. "We have said", wrote Benedict XIV to Cardinal de Tencin, "in confidence to the General of the Jesuits that the delay of the Cause has come not from the petty matters laid to his charge by Cardinal Passionei, but from the sad circumstances of the times" (Études Religieuses, 15 April, 1896). [Note: St. Robert Bellarmine was canonized by Pope Pius XI in 1930, and declared a Doctor of the Universal Church in 1931. He is the patron saint of catechists.] Text from The Catholic Encyclopedia

Pope Francis " Love changes everything! And love can change us too, each of us. The testimonies of the saints..." FULL TEXT + Video at Angelus

The words of the Pope at the recital of the Angelus, 16.09.2018

At 12 o'clock today, the Holy Father Francis appeared at the window of the study in the Vatican Apostolic Palace to recite the Angelus with the faithful and the pilgrims gathered in St. Peter's Square.

These are the words of the Pope in introducing the Marian prayer:

Before the Angelus

Dear brothers and sisters, good morning!

In today's Gospel passage (cf. Mk 8: 27-35), the question that goes through the whole Gospel of Mark returns: who is Jesus? But this time it is Jesus himself who places it to the disciples, gradually helping them to face the question of his identity. Before asking them directly, the Twelve, Jesus wants to hear from them what people think of him - and he knows very well that the disciples are very sensitive to the popularity of the Master! So he asks: "People, who say I am?" (V. 27). It emerges that Jesus is considered by the people a great prophet. But, in reality, he is not interested in polls and people's gossip. He does not even accept that his disciples answer his questions with pre-packaged formulas, citing famous people of the Holy Scriptures, because a faith reduced to formulas is a short-sighted faith.

The Lord wants his disciples of yesterday and today to establish a personal relationship with Him, and thus welcome him to the center of their lives. This is why he urges them to ask themselves in all truth before themselves, and asks: "But you, who do you say that I am?" (V. 29). Jesus, today, addresses this request so direct and confidential to each of us: "You, who do you say I am? Who do you say that I am? Who am I for you? ". Everyone is called to respond in his heart, letting himself be illuminated by the light that the Father gives us to know his Son Jesus. And it can happen to us, like Peter, to affirm enthusiastically: "You are the Christ". But when Jesus tells us clearly what he said to the disciples, namely that his mission is accomplished not in the broad road of success, but in the arduous path of the suffering, humiliated, rejected and crucified Servant, then it can also happen to us, like Peter , to protest and rebel because this contrasts with our expectations, with worldly expectations. In those moments, we too deserve the healthy reproof of Jesus: "Get Behind me, Satan! Because you do not think according to God, but according to men "(v. 33).

Brothers and sisters, the profession of faith in Jesus Christ can not stop at words, but asks to be authenticated by choices and concrete gestures, by a life marked by the love of God, by a great life, by a life with so much love for the next. Jesus tells us that in order to follow him, to be his disciples, one must deny oneself (see verse 34), that is, the claims of one's own selfish pride, and take up one's own cross. Then it gives everyone a fundamental rule. And what is this rule? "Whoever wants to save his life will lose it. Often in life, for many reasons, we are wrong way, looking for happiness only in things, or in the people we treat as things. But we find happiness only when love, the real one, meets us, surprises us, changes us. Love changes everything! And love can change us too, each of us. The testimonies of the saints demonstrate this.

May the Virgin Mary, who lived her faith faithfully following her Son Jesus, also help us to walk in her path, generously spending our lives for him and for our brothers.

[01376-EN.02] [Original text: Italian]

After the Angelus

Dear brothers and sisters,

Yesterday I went on an apostolic visit to Piazza Armerina and to Palermo, Sicily, on the occasion of the 25th anniversary of the death of Blessed Pino Puglisi [applause]. A round of applause to don Pino! I sincerely thank the civil and ecclesiastical authorities and all the people who helped make this journey possible. I thank the good pilots of the plane and the helicopter. I thank especially the dear bishops Rosario Gisana and Corrado Lorefice for their excellent pastoral service. I thank the young people, the families and all the wonderful people of this beautiful land of Sicily, for their warm welcome. The example and testimony of Don Puglisi continue to enlighten all of us and to give us confirmation that good is stronger than evil, love is stronger than hatred. May the Lord bless you Sicilians and your land! An applause to the Sicilians!

Dear brothers and sisters, I greet with affection all of you, Romans and pilgrims from different countries: families, parish groups, associations.

I greet the participants in the "Missio Giovani" assembly of the Pontifical Mission Societies and encourage them to be witnesses of Jesus' merciful love.

I greet the teachers and the Latin-speaking students of the "Corderius College" of Amersfoort: Valete dilectissimi!
I greet the confirmations of Marsan (Vicenza) and the Swiss musicians of Oron-la-Ville. I also see a nice group from Nicaragua. I greet you so much!

Today, two days after the Feast of the Holy Cross, I thought of giving to you that you are here in the square a crucifix. Here it is [shows]. The crucifix is ​​the sign of God's love, which in Jesus gave life for us. I invite you to welcome this gift and bring it into your homes, your children's room, or your grandparents ..., in any part, but in the house. It is not an ornamental object, but a religious sign to contemplate and pray. Looking at Jesus crucified, we look at our salvation. You do not pay anything. If someone tells you that you have to pay, it's a smart one! Nothing! This is a gift from the Pope. I thank the sisters, the poor and the refugees who will now distribute this gift, small but precious! As always, faith comes from the little ones, from the humble ones.

I wish everyone a good Sunday. Please do not forget to pray for me. Good lunch and goodbye!

[01377-EN.02] [Original text: Italian] - Source: Vatican.va - Unofficial Translation

Wow Pope Francis gives out 40,000 Free Crucifixes with Prayer to People at Angelus

Pope Francis gives crucifix to Angelus-goers
To mark the recent Feast of the Exaltation of the Cross, Pope Francis gives those present at the Angelus prayer a small crucifix, calling it “a sign of the love of God, who in Jesus gave his life for us.”
 By Devin Watkins
Pope Francis gave a crucifix to every person present at the Sunday Angelus prayer in St. Peter’s Square, to mark the Feast of the Exaltation of the Holy Cross celebrated on Friday, September 14th.
“Today, two days after the Feast of the Holy Cross, I thought of giving you who are here in the Square a crucifix,” the Pope said, in his remarks following the Angelus prayer.
Around 40,000 silver-plated metal crucifixes were distributed, along with a prayer card with the words (in English, Italian, and Spanish): “The Cross of Christ contains all the love of God; there we find his immeasurable mercy.” Pope Francis pronounced those words during the Way of the Cross held at the World Youth Day in Brazil on July 26, 2013.

Sign of God’s love


“The crucifix is the sign of the love of God, who in Jesus gave his life for us,” he said before distribution. “I invite you to accept this gift and place it in your homes, in your children’s rooms, or that of your grandparents.”
Pope Francis pointed out that it is “not an ornamental object”. He said the crucifix is “a religious sign meant for contemplation and prayer.”
“Gazing upon Jesus Crucified, we gave upon our salvation.”
The Holy Father thanked the sisters, poor people, and refugees who distributed the gift, which, he said, “is small but precious.”
Afterwards, the volunteers were offered a sandwich and a soft drink, which the Office of Papal Charities dispensed in Pope Francis’ name.
Text and Image Share from Vatican News

Sunday Mass Online : Sun. September 16, 2018 - #Eucharist - Readings + Video - 24th Ord. Time - B


Twenty-fourth Sunday in Ordinary Time
Lectionary: 131

Reading 1IS 50:5-9A

The Lord GOD opens my ear that I may hear;
and I have not rebelled,
have not turned back.
I gave my back to those who beat me,
my cheeks to those who plucked my beard;
my face I did not shield
from buffets and spitting.

The Lord GOD is my help,
therefore I am not disgraced;
I have set my face like flint,
knowing that I shall not be put to shame.
He is near who upholds my right;
if anyone wishes to oppose me,
let us appear together.
Who disputes my right?
Let that man confront me.
See, the Lord GOD is my help;
who will prove me wrong?

Responsorial PsalmPS 116:1-2, 3-4, 5-6, 8-9

R. (9) I will walk before the Lord, in the land of the living.
or:
R. Alleluia.
I love the LORD because he has heard
my voice in supplication,
because he has inclined his ear to me
the day I called.
R. I will walk before the Lord, in the land of the living.
or:
R. Alleluia.
The cords of death encompassed me;
the snares of the netherworld seized upon me;
I fell into distress and sorrow,
and I called upon the name of the LORD,
"O LORD, save my life!"
R. I will walk before the Lord, in the land of the living.
or:
R. Alleluia.
Gracious is the LORD and just;
yes, our God is merciful.
The LORD keeps the little ones;
I was brought low, and he saved me.
R. I will walk before the Lord, in the land of the living.
or:
R. Alleluia.
For he has freed my soul from death,
my eyes from tears, my feet from stumbling.
I shall walk before the Lord
in the land of the living.
R. I will walk before the Lord, in the land of the living.
or:
R. Alleluia.

Reading 2JAS 2:14-18

What good is it, my brothers and sisters,
if someone says he has faith but does not have works? 
Can that faith save him? 
If a brother or sister has nothing to wear
and has no food for the day,
and one of you says to them,
"Go in peace, keep warm, and eat well, "
but you do not give them the necessities of the body,
what good is it? 
So also faith of itself,
if it does not have works, is dead.

Indeed someone might say,
"You have faith and I have works." 
Demonstrate your faith to me without works,
and I will demonstrate my faith to you from my works.

AlleluiaGAL 6:14

R. Alleluia, alleluia.
May I never boast except in the cross of our Lord
through which the world has been crucified to me and I to the world.
R. Alleluia, alleluia.


GospelMK 8:27-35

Jesus and his disciples set out
for the villages of Caesarea Philippi. 
Along the way he asked his disciples,
"Who do people say that I am?" 
They said in reply,
"John the Baptist, others Elijah,
still others one of the prophets." 
And he asked them,
"But who do you say that I am?" 
Peter said to him in reply,
"You are the Christ." 
Then he warned them not to tell anyone about him.

He began to teach them
that the Son of Man must suffer greatly
and be rejected by the elders, the chief priests, and the scribes,
and be killed, and rise after three days. 
He spoke this openly. 
Then Peter took him aside and began to rebuke him. 
At this he turned around and, looking at his disciples,
rebuked Peter and said, "Get behind me, Satan. 
You are thinking not as God does, but as human beings do."

He summoned the crowd with his disciples and said to them,
"Whoever wishes to come after me must deny himself,
take up his cross, and follow me. 
For whoever wishes to save his life will lose it,
but whoever loses his life for my sake
and that of the gospel will save it."

Saint September 16 : St. Cyprian : #Bishop and #Martyr




St. Cyprian
BISHOP AND MARTYR
Feast: September 16
Information:
Feast Day:
September 16
Born:
3rd century AD, North Africa
Died:
September 14, 258, Carthage, Africa Province, Roman Empire
Patron of:
Algeria, North Africa

CYPRIAN was an African of noble birth, but of evil life, a pagan, and a teacher of rhetoric. In middle life he was converted to Christianity, and shortly after his baptism was ordained priest, and made Bishop of Carthage, notwithstanding his resistance. When the persecution of Decius broke out, he fled from his episcopal city, that he might be the better able to minister to the wants of his flock, but returned on occasion of a pestilence. Later on he was banished, and saw in a vision his future martyrdom. Being recalled from exile, sentence of death was pronounced against him, which he received with the words "Thanks be to God." His great desire was to die whilst in the act of preaching the faith of Christ, and he had the consolation of being surrounded at his martyrdom by crowds of his faithful children. He was beheaded on the 14th of September, 258, and was buried with great solemnity. Even the pagans respected his memory.
EWTN