Wednesday, August 21, 2013



Feast Day:
August 22
The beginning of the concept that she is a Queen is found in the annunciation narrative. For the angel tells her that her Son will be King over the house of Jacob forever. So she, His Mother, would be a Queen.
The Fathers of the Church soon picked up these implications. A text probably coming from Origen (died c. 254: cf. Marian Studies 4, 1953, 87) gives her the title domina, the feminine form of Latin dominus. That same title also appears in many other early writers, e.g. , St. Ephrem, St. Jerome, St. Peter Chrysologus. (cf. Marian Studies 4. 87-91. The word Queen appears abut the sixth century, and is common thereafter (Marian Studies, 4, 91-94. )
The titles of king or queen are often used loosely, for those beings that excel in some way. Thus we call the lion the king of beasts, the rose the queen of flowers. Surely Our Lady deserves the title richly for such reasons. But there is much more.
Some inadequate reasons have been suggested: She is the daughter of David. But not every child of a king becomes a king or queen. Others have pointed out that she was free from original sin. Then, since Adam and Eve had a dominion over all things (Genesis 1. 26) she should have similar dominion. But the problem is that the royalty of Adam and Eve was largely metaphorical.
The solidly theological reasons for her title of Queen are expressed splendidly by Pius XII, in his Radio message to Fatima, Bendito seja (AAS 38. 266): "He, the Son of God, reflects on His heavenly Mother the glory, the majesty and the dominion of His kingship, for, having been associated to the King of Martyrs in the unspeakable work of human Redemption as Mother and cooperator, she remains forever associated to Him, with a practically unlimited power, in the distribution of the graces which flow from the Redemption. Jesus is King throughout all eternity by nature and by right of conquest: through Him, with Him, and subordinate to Him, Mary is Queen by grace, by divine relationship, by right of conquest, and by singular choice [of the Father]. And her kingdom is as vast as that of her Son and God, since nothing is excluded from her dominion."
We notice that there are two titles for the kingship of Christ: divine nature, and "right of conquest", i.e. , the Redemption. She is Queen "through Him, with Him, and subordinate to Him." The qualifications are obvious, and need no explanation. Her Queenship is basically a sharing in the royalty of her Son. We do not think of two powers, one infinite, the other finite. No, she and her Son are inseparable, and operate as a unit.
Of the four titles Pius XII gave for her Queenship , we notice that two are closely parallel to those of Jesus: (1) He is king by nature, as God, she is Queen by "divine relationship" that is, by being the Mother of God. In fact her relation to her Son is greater than that of ordinary Mothers of Kings. For she is the Mother of Him who is King by very nature, from all eternity, and the relationship is exclusive, for He had no human father. Still further, the ordinary queen-mother gives birth to a child who later will become king. The son of Mary is, as we said, eternally king, by His very nature. He is king by right of conquest. (2) She too is Queen by right of conquest. We already saw that this title for Him means that He redeemed us from the captivity of Satan. She shared in the struggle and victory. Since the Pope expressed her dependence on Him in a threefold way—something we would have known anyway—then it is clear that he did not have in mind any other restriction which he did not express. So, with subordination, "by right of conquest" means the same for her as it does for Him.
The other two titles: (3)She is Queen by grace. She is full of grace, the highest in the category of grace besides her Son. (4)She is Queen by singular choice of the Father. A mere human can become King or Queen by choice of the People. How much greater a title is the choice of the Father Himself!
Pius XII added that "nothing is excluded from her dominion." As Mediatrix of all graces, who shared in earning all graces, she is, as Benedict XV said in a text already cited, "Suppliant omnipotence": she can obtain by her intercession anything that the all-powerful God can do by His own inherent power.
In the OT, under some Davidic kings, the gebirah, the "Great Lady", usually the Mother of the King, held great power as advocate with the king. Cf. 1 KGB 2:20, where Solomon said to his Mother Bathsheba, seated on a throne at his right: "Make your request, Mother, for I will not refuse you." Here is a sort of type of Our Lady.

Novena to Mary, Queen of All HeartsO Mary, Queen of All Hearts, Advocate of the most hopeless cases; Mother most pure, most compassionate; Mother of Divine Love, full of divine Light, we confide to your care the petitions which we humbly ask of you today.

Consider our misery, our tears, our interior trials and sufferings. We know that you can help us through the merits of your Divine Son, Jesus. We promise, if our prayers are heard, to spread your glory by making you known under the title of "Mary, Queen of All Hearts, Queen of the Universe."

Grant, we beseech you, hear our prayers, for every day you give us so many proofs of your love and intercession to heal both body and soul. We hope against all hope; ask Jesus to cure us, pardon us, and grant us final perseverance.

O Mary, Queen of All Hearts, help us; we have confidence in you.
O Mary, Queen of All Hearts, help us; we have confidence in you.
O Mary, Queen of All Hearts, help us; we have confidence in you.



Memorial of the Queenship of the Blessed Virgin Mary
Lectionary: 422

Reading 1               JGS 11:29-39A

The Spirit of the LORD came upon Jephthah.
He passed through Gilead and Manasseh,
and through Mizpah-Gilead as well,
and from there he went on to the Ammonites.
Jephthah made a vow to the LORD.
“If you deliver the Ammonites into my power,” he said,
“whoever comes out of the doors of my house
to meet me when I return in triumph from the Ammonites
shall belong to the LORD.
I shall offer him up as a burnt offering.”

Jephthah then went on to the Ammonites to fight against them,
and the LORD delivered them into his power,
so that he inflicted a severe defeat on them,
from Aroer to the approach of Minnith (twenty cities in all)
and as far as Abel-keramim.
Thus were the Ammonites brought into subjection
by the children of Israel.
When Jephthah returned to his house in Mizpah,
it was his daughter who came forth,
playing the tambourines and dancing.
She was an only child: he had neither son nor daughter besides her.
When he saw her, he rent his garments and said,
“Alas, daughter, you have struck me down
and brought calamity upon me.
For I have made a vow to the LORD and I cannot retract.”
She replied, “Father, you have made a vow to the LORD.
Do with me as you have vowed,
because the LORD has wrought vengeance for you
on your enemies the Ammonites.”
Then she said to her father, “Let me have this favor.
Spare me for two months, that I may go off down the mountains
to mourn my virginity with my companions.”
“Go,” he replied, and sent her away for two months.
So she departed with her companions
and mourned her virginity on the mountains.
At the end of the two months she returned to her father,
who did to her as he had vowed.

Responsorial Psalm                        PS 40:5, 7-8A, 8B-9, 10

R. (8a and 9a) Here I am, Lord; I come to do your will.
Blessed the man who makes the LORD his trust;
who turns not to idolatry
or to those who stray after falsehood.
R. Here I am, Lord; I come to do your will.
Sacrifice or oblation you wished not,
but ears open to obedience you gave me.
Burnt offerings or sin-offerings you sought not;
then said I, “Behold I come.”
R. Here I am, Lord; I come to do your will.
“In the written scroll it is prescribed for me.
To do your will, O my God, is my delight,
and your law is within my heart!”
R. Here I am, Lord; I come to do your will.
I announced your justice in the vast assembly;
I did not restrain my lips, as you, O LORD, know.
R. Here I am, Lord; I come to do your will.

Gospel              MT 22:1-14

Jesus again in reply spoke to the chief priests and the elders of the people in parables
saying, “The Kingdom of heaven may be likened to a king
who gave a wedding feast for his son.
He dispatched his servants to summon the invited guests to the feast,
but they refused to come.
A second time he sent other servants, saying,
‘Tell those invited: “Behold, I have prepared my banquet,
my calves and fattened cattle are killed,
and everything is ready; come to the feast.”’
Some ignored the invitation and went away,
one to his farm, another to his business.
The rest laid hold of his servants,
mistreated them, and killed them.
The king was enraged and sent his troops,
destroyed those murderers, and burned their city.
Then the king said to his servants, ‘The feast is ready,
but those who were invited were not worthy to come.
Go out, therefore, into the main roads
and invite to the feast whomever you find.’
The servants went out into the streets
and gathered all they found, bad and good alike,
and the hall was filled with guests.
But when the king came in to meet the guests
he saw a man there not dressed in a wedding garment.
He said to him, ‘My friend, how is it
that you came in here without a wedding garment?’
But he was reduced to silence.
Then the king said to his attendants, ‘Bind his hands and feet,
and cast him into the darkness outside,
where there will be wailing and grinding of teeth.’
Many are invited, but few are chosen.”


(Vatican Radio) Pope Francis met with students and Staff from "Gauken Bunri Seibu Junior High School, in Tokyo Japan. Speaking to the Japanese students in the Courtyard of St Damaso in the Vatican, Pope Francis underlined the importance of discussion and dialogue as a means of bringing about understanding and peace.

The Pope told the students that we can never grow culturally if we are isolated. Instead, he said if we go out and discover other cultures, other ways of thinking and other religions, we emerge from ourselves and “begin the beautiful adventure that is called dialogue.”

Dialogue, stressed Pope Francis is very important because in relation to other cultures and religions, it matures and grows.

But closed minds, continued the Pope can generate misunderstandings and quarrels. All the wars, and problems that are not resolved, happen because of a lack of dialogue.

The Holy Father, said that meekness was an important attribute in dialogue because one listens first and then speaks.

“This is the dialogue that makes peace”, he said.

A Japanese student then thanked the Pope and said the students would put into practice the words they had heard from him.

The meeting concluded with the students singing the anthem of their school.


Both men died on August 17 from natural causes. Msgr. Joseph Hoang Van Tiem suffered a heart attack, and Msgr. Thomas Nguyen Van Tân died suddenly. On 15 August, the feast of the Assumption, Msgr. Thomas had celebrated 13 years in the episcopate. Solidarity and prayers from Catholics all over the country. 

Ho Chi Minh City (AsiaNews / EDA) - Vietnamese Catholics are mourning the death of two bishops, who both died on August 17 last from natural causes. They are Msgr. Joseph Hoang Van Tiem, of the diocese of Bui Chu, in northern Vietnam, and Msgr. Thomas Nguyen Van Tân, the bishop of the diocese of Vinh Long, in the south of the country. Bishop Joseph, 74, died at 4 am for a myocardial infarction, Bishop Thomas, aged 73, died suddenly in the evening, without warning. Only two days before, on August 15, he had celebrated Mass at the Cathedral of the Assumption.
The two sudden deaths have shocked and saddened the faithful of the diocese of Bui Chu and Vinh Long, and provoked expressions of closeness from the entire Vietnamese Catholic community that is united in prayer. On behalf of the Vietnamese bishops' conference, Msgr. Pierre Nguyen Van Nhon has sent a letter of condolence.

Bishop Joseph Hoang Van Tiêm was born September 12, 1938 in the province of Nam Dinh. After studying at the minor seminary of Bui Chu, in 1960 he began his novitiate at the Salesians. In Italy first, later in the Holy Land in Bethlehem he deepened his studies of philosophy and theology. Ordained a priest in 1973, for several years he served in a parish priest before being transferred (in 1995) to the major seminary of Hanoi, where he taught moral theology.

In 2000 he was appointed Bishop of Bui Chu, a diocese battered by war and characterized by the massive exodus of Christians towards the south in 1954, with the rise to power of the Hanoi Communist Party in Ho Chi Minh City. He carried out great work in the diocese especially in the formation of priests and lay people, and now the pastoral care is entrusted to the Coadjutor Bishop Thomas Vu Dinh Hieu.

Bishop Thomas Nguyên Van Tân, whose death leaves a vacant see in his diocese, on August 15 the thirteenth anniversary of his Episcopal ordination. The community mourns a "gifted, good, humble bishop and a friend to all", who was born 27 December 1940 in the province of Tra Vinh. He entered the minor seminary of Vinh Long in 1953, after he completed his studies in philosophy and theology before being ordained a priest in 1969.  A long-time teacher, holds a doctorate in theology from Rome's Gregorian University.

In 1977, two years after the fall of Saigon with the reunification of the country under the auspices of the communist North, he experienced one of the hardest periods of his life. On September 7, 1977 the Cathedral, religious institutes and seminaries of Vinh Long were occupied by the communist authorities; events that he would evoke and write about in his letter to the faithful in October 2009. On August 15, 2000, Pope John Paul II appointed him coadjutor bishop of the diocese, which he to pastoral leadership of in 2001 with the resignation of his predecessor. His faithful remember him as a person with a strong charisma, able to build a "new Church" who gave a new impulse to priestly vocations.



Catholic Communications, Sydney Archdiocese,
19 Aug 2013
Caritas emergency teams helped survivors of 2004's massive tsunami
Melville Fernandez, Group Leader of Caritas Australia's Humanitarian Emergencies Group paid tribute to aid workers worldwide this morning who frequently face danger, risk to their own lives and adversity in their efforts to help millions in dire need.
Today, 19 August is World Humanitarian Day and is a time to reflect on the selfless men and women who work at the frontline giving aid and comfort in the aftermath of natural disasters as well as providing urgent help during humanitarian crises triggered by droughts, conflict or civil war.
Established by the United Nations to coincide with the anniversary of the 2003 bombing of the UN Headquarters in Baghdad which killed 21 UN staff, World Humanitarian Day 2013's theme is posed as a question: "What do you think the world needs more of?"
"The answer to that is simple," says Melville, insisting that what is needed most is more people helping each other in solidarity regardless of who they are or where they are.
Cylone Nargis killed more than 130,000 and was Myanmar's worst natural disaster in recorded history
The aid and development arm of the Catholic Church, Caritas along with other international aid workers spend their lives at the frontline of humanity, and are among the first on the ground after some of the world's disasters that most Australians only glimpse as a brief item during the evening TV news.
Melville was one of the dedicated Caritas workers who gave assistance to survivors after the devastating 7.6 Gujarat-India earthquake of 2001 that killed more than 20,000. He was also among the aid workers giving frontline care to victims of 2004's massive Boxing Day tsunami that killed 230,000 people in 14 countries across South East Asia. Melville was also on the ground in the aftermath of Cyclone Nargis in 2008, the worst natural disaster in Myanmar's recorded history with a death toll exceeding 130,000.
Caritas Australia's leader of the agency's Humanitarian Emergencies Group has also been at the frontline to help those in dire need in the Democratic Republic of Congo, Haiti and Afghanistan and is about to leave shortly for the Middle East to work with Caritas Internationalis and aid agencies to help the millions of Syrian refugees living in overcrowded refugee camps and in need of urgent assistance.
The enormous scale and death toll of Gujarat India's 7.7 earthquake was overwhleming
"Since the Syrian conflict began more than 100,000 have lost their lives with at least 8.3 million Syrians displaced in their homeland and more than 1.6 million men women and children forced to flee and now living in camps in the neighbouring countries of Lebanon, Jordan and Turkey," Melville says.
Currently the international Caritas network is delivering humanitarian programs across the region including Egypt with Caritas Australia supporting the agency's partners in Jordan, Lebanon and Turkey.
"We are working to not only help the Syrian refugees but we are assisting vulnerable host families as they try to cope with the major influx of people which is causing great strains on services and huge rises in the cost of living," Melville says.
Having been a humanitarian worker with Caritas for the past 36 years, he believes the long exposure and experience of this work has enabled him to realise not only are the number of natural and man-made disasters increasing, but they are also becoming more and more complex.
"We might not all be able, or want to be on the frontline. But we can take action in our own ways for humanity. We can learn about and understand the challenge others face in the world and we can give of our time as well as our money to help those who need it most," he says.
Cities, homes, livelihoods destroyed as Syria self destructs
He also points out that although humanitarian workers frequently face danger they are ordinary people who have followed a calling to protect and honour their brothers and sisters regardless of the risk to their own lives.
"At Caritas we work with AusAID and our international partners to deliver a strong timely and efficient emergency response to disasters that strike. We also pride ourselves on our strong reputation for working alongside our partners in various countries to try and build their capacity and community resilience to disasters, and will continue to be on the ground helping out before, during and after the news headlines have disappeared from the front pages," he says.
To donate to Caritas Australia and help the agency's work in this important field log on to


Memorial of Saint Pius X, Pope
Lectionary: 421

Reading 1       JGS 9:6-15

All the citizens of Shechem and all Beth-millo came together
and proceeded to make Abimelech king
by the terebinth at the memorial pillar in Shechem.

When this was reported to him,
Jotham went to the top of Mount Gerizim and, standing there,
cried out to them in a loud voice:
“Hear me, citizens of Shechem, that God may then hear you!
Once the trees went to anoint a king over themselves.
So they said to the olive tree, ‘Reign over us.’
But the olive tree answered them, ‘Must I give up my rich oil,
whereby men and gods are honored,
and go to wave over the trees?’
Then the trees said to the fig tree, ‘Come; you reign over us!’
But the fig tree answered them,
‘Must I give up my sweetness and my good fruit,
and go to wave over the trees?’
Then the trees said to the vine, ‘Come you, and reign over us.’
But the vine answered them,
‘Must I give up my wine that cheers gods and men,
and go to wave over the trees?’
Then all the trees said to the buckthorn, ‘Come; you reign over us!’
But the buckthorn replied to the trees,
‘If you wish to anoint me king over you in good faith,
come and take refuge in my shadow.
Otherwise, let fire come from the buckthorn
and devour the cedars of Lebanon.’”

Responsorial Psalm                      PS 21:2-3, 4-5, 6-7

R. (2a) Lord, in your strength the king is glad.
O LORD, in your strength the king is glad;
in your victory how greatly he rejoices!
You have granted him his heart’s desire;
you refused not the wish of his lips.
R. Lord, in your strength the king is glad.
For you welcomed him with goodly blessings,
you placed on his head a crown of pure gold.
He asked life of you: you gave him
length of days forever and ever.
R. Lord, in your strength the king is glad.
Great is his glory in your victory;
majesty and splendor you conferred upon him.
You made him a blessing forever,
you gladdened him with the joy of your face.
R. Lord, in your strength the king is glad.

Gospel                 MT 20:1-16

Jesus told his disciples this parable:
“The Kingdom of heaven is like a landowner
who went out at dawn to hire laborers for his vineyard.
After agreeing with them for the usual daily wage,
he sent them into his vineyard.
Going out about nine o’clock,
he saw others standing idle in the marketplace,
and he said to them, ‘You too go into my vineyard,
and I will give you what is just.’
So they went off.
And he went out again around noon,
and around three o’clock, and did likewise.
Going out about five o’clock,
he found others standing around, and said to them,
‘Why do you stand here idle all day?’
They answered, ‘Because no one has hired us.’
He said to them, ‘You too go into my vineyard.’
When it was evening the owner of the vineyard said to his foreman,
‘Summon the laborers and give them their pay,
beginning with the last and ending with the first.’
When those who had started about five o’clock came,
each received the usual daily wage.
So when the first came, they thought that they would receive more,
but each of them also got the usual wage.
And on receiving it they grumbled against the landowner, saying,
‘These last ones worked only one hour,
and you have made them equal to us,
who bore the day’s burden and the heat.’
He said to one of them in reply,
‘My friend, I am not cheating you.
Did you not agree with me for the usual daily wage?
Take what is yours and go.
What if I wish to give this last one the same as you?
Or am I not free to do as I wish with my own money?
Are you envious because I am generous?’
Thus, the last will be first, and the first will be last.”


Pope Pius XII  gave secret orders for the religious houses of the city to give sanctuary to Jewish people (CNS)PCATHOLIC HERALD REPORT:
By  on Thursday, 15 August 2013
Pope Pius XII gave secret orders for the religious houses of the city to give sanctuary to Jewish people (CNS)
A Jewish Italian who survived the Holocaust after he hid in a convent in Rome has paid tribute to a British “hot cross bun” nun who helped to shelter him from the Nazis.
Piero Piperno was one of more than 4,200 Jews who in October 1943 were given sanctuary in the religious houses of the city on the secret orders of the Venerable Pope Pius XII.
There, Mother Riccarda Beauchamp Hambrough, who had moved from London to Rome to join a newly revived order of Bridgettine nuns, fed and consoled him and his family and also dissuaded German soldiers from searching her convent for them.
In a new book called Courage and Conviction, Mr Piperno tells Joanna Bogle, a Catholic author and journalist, about his memories of the English nun whose Cause was last year taken up by the Vatican.
He explained how he and his family fled from Sienna to Rome as the Nazis began to round up Italian Jews for deportation to the concentration camps.
As a 15-year-old in a group of 13 Jews hidden in the Casa di Santa Brigida, the Bridgettine mother house in Rome, he remembers how Mother Riccarda would bring them food and console them.
“What I remember most about Mother Riccarda was her smile,” he said. “She was so sweet and kind always, and her smile was beautiful, radiant. She helped always – you instinctively went to her when you were troubled, and she would soothe things.
“She was also very pretty – you can’t tell that from her photograph, but in real life she was really beautiful.
“She was English, very much so, but she had fluent Italian. She put everyone at ease. We called her Mamima – ‘little mother’.” He said that she could sometimes be overshadowed by Blessed Elisabeth Hasselblad, the abbess, “who was definitely the lady in charge and who had a big personality”.
But he added: “Our Mamima, Mother Riccarda, was different – she was quiet, she did things in a quiet, pleasant way. We all loved her very much.” He said when they arrived at the convent in Rome’s historic Piazza Farnese his mother was too scared to tell the abbess that they were Jewish.
Attempting to disguise themselves, they attended Mass on Christmas Day but the mother eventually decided to admit their identity.
They were then told by the nuns to “live our own beliefs, that we must not feel any need to pretend, and that we must live and pray as Jews”.
The nuns “gave us back our dignity”, Mr Piperno said, adding: “It is impossible to explain what that meant to us. We felt human again.”
One nun, the Rev Mother Thekla, said that Mother Riccarda “above all had a profound respect for these Jewish guests.
“Mother Riccarda was an extremely discreet woman – she knew when to talk and when not to talk, she was gentle and calm, and she was highly educated,” she said.
“She spoke good German, so she was able to speak with confidence to German soldiers if they came around.”
The nuns also hid Vello Salo, an Estonian deserter from the German Army, who after the war was ordained as a Catholic priest.
Mrs Bogle’s book has been published by Gracewing just 18 months after a file on Mother Riccarda was sent to the Vatican’s Congregation of Causes for Sainthood to be studied by historians and theologians.
The nun’s Cause was opened in July 2010 along with that of Sr Katherine Flanagan. Both nuns belonged to an Order called the Most Holy Saviour of St Bridget, nicknamed “the hot cross bun nuns” because of the crosses covering the tops of their wimples.


2095 teddy bears at the Melbourne Town Hall

ARCHDIOCESE OF MELBOURNE RELEASE: MacKillop Family Services, Tuesday 20 August 2013

TODAY 2095 teddy bears were sitting on the Melbourne Town Hall steps to represent the overwhelming number of children currently in foster care in Victoria.

The Principal Commissioner for Children and Young People Bernie Geary and MacKillop Family Services CEO Micaela Cronin attended the event which coincided with the launch of MacKillop
Family Services’ Foster Care Fortnight.

“There are thousands of children in foster care and this number unfortunately grows every day,” said Micaela Cronin, CEO of MacKillop Family Services.

“What these children need most is a safe and nurturing place to call home, so that they can begin to live the kind of childhood they deserve.”

Foster carers come from all types of backgrounds and families.

 MacKillop provides comprehensive training and support and regular breaks. All foster carers are also entitled to financial reimbursement.

Foster Care Fortnight is a MacKillop Family Services initiative to highlight the urgent need for more foster carers across Australia.

The Foster Care Fortnight runs from 18 - 31 August 2013.

To find out more about becoming a foster carer please call 1300 791 677 or visit



Feast Day:
August 21
2 June 1835 at Riese, diocese of Treviso, Venice, Austria (now Italy)
20 August 1914 at Vatican City
29 May 1954 by Pope Pius XII
Patron of:
first communicants, pilgrims
Born 2 June, 1835, at Riese, Province of Treviso, in Venice. His parents were Giovanni Battista Sarto and Margarita (née Sanson); the former, a postman, died in 1852, but Margarita lived to see her son a cardinal. After finishing his elements, Giuseppe at first received private lessons in Latin from the arch-priest of his town, Don Tito Fusaroni, after which he studied for four years at the gymnasium of Castelfranco Veneto, walking to and fro every day. In 1850 he received the tonsure from the Bishop of Treviso, and was given a scholarship of the Diocese of Treviso in the seminary of Padua, where he finished his classical, philosophical, and theological studies with distinction. He was ordained in 1858, and for nine years was chaplain at Tombolo, having to assume most of the functions of parish priest, as the pastor was old and an invalid. He sought to prefect his knowledge of theology by assiduously studying Saint Thomas and canon law; at the same time he established a night school for adult students, and devoted himself of the ministry of preaching in other towns to which he was called. In 1867 he was named arch-priest of Salzano, a large borough of the Diocese of Treviso, where he restored the church, and provided for the enlargement and maintenance of the hospital by his own means, consistently with his habitual generosity to the poor; he especially distinguished himself by his abnegation during the cholera. He showed great solicitude for the religious instruction of adults. In 1875 he was made a canon of the cathedral of Treviso, and filled several offices, among them those of spiritual director and rector of the seminary, examiner of the clergy, and vicar-general; moreover, he made it possible for the students of the public schools to receive religious instruction. In 1878, on the death of Bishop Zanelli, he was elected vicar-capitular. On 10 November, 1884, he was named Bishop of Mantua, then a very troublesome see, and consecrated on 20 November. His chief care in his new position was for the formation of the clergy at the seminary, where, for several years, he himself taught dogmatic theology, and for another year moral theology. He wished the doctrine and method of St. Thomas to be followed, and to many of the poorer students he gave copies of the "Summa theologica"; at the same time he cultivated the Gregorian Chant in company with the seminarians. The temporal administration of his see imposed great sacrifices upon him. In 1887 he held a diocesan synod. By his attendance at the confessional, he gave the example of pastoral zeal. The Catholic organization of Italy, then known as the "Opera dei Congressi", found in him a zealous propagandist from the time of his ministry at Salzano.
At the secret consistory of June, 1893, Leo XIII created him a cardinal under the title of San Bernardo alle Terme; and in the   public consistory, three days later, he was preconized Patriarch of Venice, retaining meanwhile the title of Apostolic Administrator of Mantua. Cardinal Sarto was obliged to wait eighteen months before he was able to take possession of his new diocese, because the Italian government refused its exequatur, claiming the right of nomination as it had been exercised by the Emperor of Austria. This matter was discussed with bitterness in the newspapers and in pamphlets; the Government, by way of reprisal, refused its exequatur to the other bishops who were appointed in the meantime, so that the number of vacant sees grew to thirty. Finally, the minister Crispi having returned to power, and the Holy See having raised the mission of Eritrea to the rank of an Apostolic Prefecture in favour of the Italian Capuchins, the Government withdrew from its position. Its opposition had not been caused by any objection to Sarto personally. At Venice the cardinal found a much better condition of things than he had found at Mantua. There, also, he paid great attention to the seminary, where he obtained the establishment of the faculty of canon law. In 1898 he held the diocesan synod. He promoted the use of the Gregorian Chant, and was a great patron of Lorenzo Perosi; he favoured social works, especially the rural parochial banks; he discerned and energetically opposed the dangers of certain doctrines and the conduct of certain Christian-Democrats. The international Eucharistic Congress of 1897, the centenary of St. Gerard Sagredo (1900), and the blessing of the corner-stone of the new belfry of St. Mark's, also of the commemorative chapel of Mt. Grappa (1901), were events that left a deep impression on him and his people. Meanwhile, Leo XIII having died, the cardinals entered into conclave and after several ballots Giuseppe Sarto was elected on 4 August by a vote of 55 out of a possible 60 votes. His coronation took place on the following Sunday, 9 August, 1903.
In his first Encyclical, wishing to develop his programme to some extent, he said that the motto of his pontificate would be   "instaurare omnia in Christo" (Ephesians 1:10). Accordingly, his greatest care always turned to the direct interests of the Church. Before all else his efforts were directed to the promotion of piety among the faithful, and he advised all (Decr. S. Congr. Concil., 20 Dec., 1905) to receive Holy Communion frequently and, if possible, daily, dispensing the sick from the obligation of fasting to the extent of enabling them to receive Holy Communion twice each month, and even oftener (Decr. S. Congr. Rit., 7 Dec., 1906). Finally, by the Decree "Quam Singulari" (15 Aug., 1910), he recommended that the first Communion of children should not be deferred too long after they had reached the age of discretion. It was by his desire that the Eucharistic Congress of 1905 was held at Rome, while he enhanced the solemnity of subsequent Eucharistic congresses by sending to them cardinal legates. The fiftieth anniversary of the proclamation of the dogma of the Immaculate Conception was an occasion of which he took advantage to enjoin devotion to Mary (Encyclical "Ad illum diem", 2 February, 1904); and the Marian Congress, together with the coronation of the image of the Immaculate Conception in the choir of St. Peter's, was a worthy culmination of the solemnity. As a simple chaplain, a bishop, and a patriarch, Giuseppe Sarto was a promoter of sacred music; as pope, he published, 22 November, 1903, a Motu Proprio on sacred music in churches, and at the same time ordered the authentic Gregorian Chant to be used everywhere, while he caused the choir books to be printed with the Vatican font of type under the supervision of a special commission. In the Encyclical "Acerbo nimis" (15 April, 1905) he treated of the necessity of catechismal instruction, not only for children, but also for adults, giving detailed rules, especially in relation to suitable schools for the religious instruction of students of the public schools, and even of the universities. He caused a new catechism to be published for the Diocese of Rome.
As bishop, his chief care had been for the formation of the clergy, and in harmony with this purpose, an Encyclical to the Italian episcopate (28 July, 1906) enjoined the greatest caution in the ordination of priests, calling the attention of the bishops to the fact that there was frequently manifested among the younger clergy a spirit of independence that was a menace to ecclesiastical discipline. In the interest of Italian seminaries, he order them to be visited by the bishops, and promulgated a new order of studies, which had been in use for several years at the Roman Seminary. On the other hand, as the dioceses of Central and of Southern Italy were so small that their respective seminaries could not prosper, Pius X established the regional seminary which is common to the sees of a given region; and, as a consequence, many small, deficient seminaries were closed. For the more efficient guidance of souls, by a Decree of the Sacred Congregation of the Consistory (20 August, 1910), instructions were given concerning the removal of parish priests, as administrative acts, when such procedure was required by grave circumstances that might not constitute a canonical cause for the removal. At the time of the jubilee in honour of his ordination as a priest, he addressed a letter full of affection and wise council to all the clergy. By a recent Decree (18 Nov., 1910), the clergy have been barred from the temporal administration of social organizations, which was often a cause of grave difficulties.
The pope has at heart above all things the purity of the faith. On various occasions, as in the Encyclical regarding the centenary of Saint Gregory the Great, Pius X had pointed out the dangers of certain new theological methods, which, based upon Agnosticism and upon Immanentism, necessarily divest the doctrine of the faith of its teachings of objective, absolute, and immutable truth, and all the more, when those methods are associated with subversive criticism of the Holy Scripture and of the origins of Christianity. Wherefore, in 1907, he caused the publication of the Decree "Lamentabili" (called also the Syllabus of Pius X), in which sixty-five propositions are condemned. The greater number of these propositions concern the Holy Scripture, their inspiration, and the doctrine of Jesus and of the Apostles, while others relate to dogma, the sacraments, and the primacy of the Bishop of Rome. Soon after that, on 8 Sept., 1907, there appeared the famous Encyclical "Pascendi", which expounds and condemns the system of Modernism. It points out the danger of Modernism in relation to philosophy, apologetics, exegesis, history, liturgy, and discipline, and shows the contradiction between that innovation and the ancient faith; and, finally, it establishes rules by which to combat efficiently the pernicious doctrines in question. Among the means suggested mention should be made of the establishment of an official body of "censors" of books and the creation of a "Committee of Vigilance".
Subsequently, by the Motu Proprio "Sacrorum Antistitum", Pius X called attention to the injunctions of the Encyclical and also to the provisions that had already been established under   Leo XIII on preaching, and proscribed that all those who exercised the holy ministry or who taught in ecclesiastical institutions, as well as canons, the superiors of the regular clergy, and those serving in ecclesiastical bureaux should take an oath, binding themselves to reject the errors that are denounced in the Encyclical or in the Decree "Lamentabili". Pius X reverted to this vital subject on other occasions, especially in those Encyclicals that were written in commemoration of St. Anselm (21 April, 1909) and of St. Charles Borromeo (23 June, 1910), in the latter of which Reformist Modernism was especially condemned. As the study of the Bible is both the most important and the most dangerous study in theology, Pius X wished to found at Rome a centre for these studies, to give assurance at once of unquestioned orthodoxy and scientific worth; and so, with the assistance of the whole Catholic world, there was established at Rome the Biblical Institute, under the direction of the Jesuits.
A need that had been felt for a long time was that of the codification of the Canon Law, and with a view to effecting it, Pius X, on 19 March, 1904, created a special congregation of cardinals, of which Mgr Gasparri, now a cardinal, became the secretary. The most eminent authorities on canon law, throughout the world, are collaborating in the formation of the new code, some of the provisions of which have already been   published, as, for example, that modifying the law of the Council of Trent on secret marriages, the new rules for diocesan relations and for episcopal visits ad limina, and the new organization of the Roman Curia (Constitution "Sapienti Consilio", 29 June, 1908). Prior to that time, the Congregations for Relics and Indulgences and of Discipline had been suppressed, while the Secretariate of Briefs had been united to the Secretariate of State. The characteristic of the new rule is the complete separation of the judicial from the administrative; while the functions of the various bureaux have been more precisely determined, and their work more equalized. The offices of the Curia are divided into Tribunals (3), Congregations (11), and Offices (5). With regard to the first, the Tribunal of the Signature (consisting of cardinals only) and that of the Rota were revived; to the Tribunal of the Penitentiary were left only the cases of the internal forum (conscience). The Congregations remained almost as they were at first, with the exceptions that a special section was added to that of the Holy Office of the Inquisition, for indulgences; the Congregation of Bishops and Regulars received the name of Congregation of the Religious, and has to deal only with the affairs of religious congregations, while the affairs of the secular clergy are to be referred to the Congregation of the Consistory or of that of the Council; from the latter were taken the matrimonial cases, which are now sent to the tribunals or to the newly-created Congregation of the Sacraments. The Congregation of the Consistory has increased greatly in importance, since it has to decide questions of competence between the various other Congregations. The Congregation of Propaganda lost much of its territory in Europe and in America, where religious conditions have become regular. At the same time were published the rules and regulations for employees and those for the various bureaux. Another recent Constitution relates to the suburbicarian sees.
The Catholic hierarchy has greatly increased in numbers during these first years of the pontificate of Pius X, in which twenty-eight new dioceses have been created, mostly in the United States Brazil, and the Philippine Islands; also one abbey nullius, 16 vicariates Apostolic, and 15 prefectures Apostolic.
Leo XIII brought the social question within the range of ecclesiastical activity, Pius X, also, wishes the Church to co-operate, or rather to play a leading part in the solution of the social question; his views on this subject were formulated in a syllabus of nineteen propositions, taken from different Encyclicals and other Acts of Leo XIII, and published in a Motu Proprio (18 Dec., 1903), especially for the guidance of Italy, where the social question was a thorny one at the beginning of his pontificate. He sought especially to repress certain tendencies leaning towards Socialism and promoting a spirit of insubordination to ecclesiastical authority. As a result of ever increasing divergences, the "Opera die Congressi", the great association of the Catholics of Italy, was dissolved. At once, however, the Encyclical "Il fermo proposito" (11 June, 1905) brought about the formation of a new organization consisting of three great unions, the Popolare, the Economica, and the Elettorale. The firmness of Pius X obtained the elimination of, at least, the most quarrelsome elements, making it possible now for Catholic social action to prosper, although some friction still remains. The desire of Pius X is for the economical work to be avowedly Catholic, as he expressed it in a memorable letter to Count Medolago-Albani. In France, also, the Sillon, after promising well, had taken a turn that was little reassuring to orthodoxy; and dangers in this connection were made manifest in the Encyclical "Notre charge apostolique" (15 Aug., 1910), in which the Sillonists were ordered to place their organizations under the authority of the bishops.
In its relations with Governments, the pontificate of Pius X has had to carry on painful struggles. In France the pope had inherited quarrels and menaces. The "Nobis nominavit" question was settled through the condescension of the pope; but the matter of the appointment of bishops proposed by the Government, the visit of the president to the King of Italy, with the subsequent note of protestation, and the resignation of two French bishops, which was desired by the Holy See, became pretexts for the Government at Paris to break off diplomatic relations with the Court of Rome. Meanwhile the law of Separation had been already prepared, despoiling the Church of France, and also prescribing for the Church a constitution which, if not openly contrary to her nature, was at   least full of danger to her. Pius X, paying no attention to the counsels of short-sighted opportunism, firmly refused his consent to the formation of the associations cultuelles. The separation brought some freedom to the French Church, especially in the matter of the selection of its pastors. Pius X, not looking for reprisals, still recognizes the French right of protectorate over Catholics in the East. Some phrases of the Encyclical "Editæ Sæpe", written on the occasion of the centenary of St. Charles, were misinterpreted by Protestants, especially in Germany, and Pius X made a declaration in refutation of them, without belittling the authority of his high office. At present (Dec., 1910) complications are feared in Spain, as, also, separation and persecution in Portugal; Pius X has already taken opportune measures. The new Government of Turkey has sent an ambassador to the Pope. The relations of the Holy See with the republics of Latin America are good. The delegations to Chile and to the Argentine Republic were raised to the rank of internuntiatures, and an Apostolic Delegate was sent to Central America.
Naturally, the solicitude of Pius X extends to his own habitation, and he has done a great deal of work of restoration in the Vatican, for example, in the quarters of the cardinal-secretary of State, the new palace for employees, the new picture-gallery, the Specola, etc. Finally, we must not forget his generous charity in public misfortunes: during the great earthquakes of Calabria, he asked for the assistance of Catholics throughout the world, with the result that they contributed, at the time of the last earthquake, nearly 7,000,000 francs, which served to supply the wants of those in need, and to build churches, schools, etc. His charity was proportionately no less on the occasion of the eruption of Vesuvius, and of other disasters outside of Italy (Portugal and Ireland). In few years Pius X has secured great, practical, and lasting results in the interest of Catholic doctrine and discipline, and that in the face of great difficulties of all kinds. Even non-Catholics recognize his apostolic spirit, his strength of character, the precision of his decisions, and his pursuit of a clear and explicit programme. SOURCE EWTN