Tuesday, October 16, 2018

Saint October 17 : St. Ignatius of #Antioch : Patron of Throat diseases


St. Ignatius of Antioch
Feast: October 17
Feast Day:
October 17
50 in Syria
between 98-117, Rome
Major Shrine:
Relics are in St. Peter's Basilica, Rome
Patron of:
against throat diseases, Church in eastern Mediterranean; Church in North Africa

Also called Theophorus (ho Theophoros); born in Syria, around the year 50; died at Rome between 98 and 117.
More than one of the earliest ecclesiastical writers have given credence, though apparently without good reason, to the legend that Ignatius was the child whom the Savior took up in His arms, as described in Mark, ix, 35. It is also believed, and with great probability, that, with his friend Polycarp, he was among the auditors of the Apostle St. John. If we include St. Peter, Ignatius was the third Bishop of Antioch and the immediate successor of Evodius (Eusebius, "Hist. Eccl.", II, iii, 22). Theodoret ("Dial. Immutab.", I, iv, 33a, Paris, 1642) is the authority for the statement that St. Peter appointed Ignatius to the See of Antioch. St. John Chrysostom lays special emphasis on the honor conferred upon the martyr in receiving his episcopal consecration at the hands of the Apostles themselves ("Hom. in St. Ig.", IV. 587). Natalis Alexander quotes Theodoret to the same effect (III, xii, art. xvi, p. 53).
All the sterling qualities of ideal pastor and a true soldier of Christ were possessed by the Bishop of Antioch in a preeminent degree. Accordingly, when the storm of the persecution of Domitian broke in its full fury upon the Christians of Syria, it found their faithful leader prepared and watchful. He was unremitting in his vigilance and tireless in his efforts to inspire hope and to strengthen the weaklings of his flock against the terrors of the persecution. The restoration of peace, though it was short-lived, greatly comforted him. But it was not for himself that he rejoiced, as the one great and ever-present wish of his chivalrous soul was that he might receive the fullness of Christian discipleship through the medium of martyrdom. His desire was not to remain long unsatisfied. Associated with the writings of St. Ignatius is a work called "Martyrium Ignatii ", which purports to be an account by eyewitnesses of the martyrdom of St. Ignatius and the acts leading up to it. In this work, which such competent Protestant critics as Pearson and Ussher regard as genuine, the full history of that eventful journey from Syria to Rome is faithfully recorded for the edification of the Church of Antioch. It is certainly very ancient and is reputed to have been written by Philo, deacon of Tarsus, and Rheus Agathopus, a Syrian, who accompanied Ignatius to Rome. It is generally admitted, even by those who regarded it as authentic, that this work has been greatly interpolated. Its most reliable form is that found in the "Martyrium Colbertinum" which closes the mixed recension and is so called because its oldest witness is the tenth-century Codex Colbertinus (Paris).
According to these Acts, in the ninth year of his reign, Trajan, flushed with victory over the Scythians and Dacians, sought to perfect the universality of his dominion by a species of religious conquest. He decreed, therefore, that the Christians should unite with their pagan neighbors in the worship of the gods. A general persecution was threatened, and death was named as the penalty for all who refused to offer the prescribed sacrifice. Instantly alert to the danger that threatened, Ignatius availed himself of all the means within his reach to thwart the purpose of the emperor. The success of his zealous efforts did not long remain hidden from the Church's persecutors. He was soon arrested and led before Trajan, who was then sojourning in Antioch. Accused by the emperor himself of violating the imperial edict, and of inciting others to like transgressions, Ignatius valiantly bore witness to the faith of Christ. If we may believe the account given in the "Martyrium", his bearing before Trajan was characterized by inspired eloquence, sublime courage, and even a spirit of exultation. Incapable of appreciating the motives that animated him, the emperor ordered him to be put in chains and taken to Rome, there to become the food of wild beasts and a spectacle for the people.
That the trials of this journey to Rome were great we gather from his letter to the Romans (par. 5): "From Syria even to Rome I fight with wild beasts, by land and sea, by night and by day, being bound amidst ten leopards, even a company of soldiers, who only grow worse when they are kindly treated." Despite all this, his journey was a kind of triumph. News of his fate, his destination, and his probable itinerary had gone swiftly before. At several places along the road his fellow-Christians greeted him with words of comfort and reverential homage. It is probable that he embarked on his way to Rome at Seleucia, in Syria, the nearest port to Antioch, for either Tarsus in Cilicia, or Attalia in Pamphylia, and thence, as we gather from his letters, he journeyed overland through Asia Minor. At Laodicea, on the River Lycus, where a choice of routes presented itself, his guards selected the more northerly, which brought the prospective martyr through Philadelphia and Sardis, and finally to Smyrna, where Polycarp, his fellow-disciple in the school of St. John, was bishop. The stay at Smyrna, which was a protracted one, gave the representatives of the various Christian communities in Asia Minor an opportunity of greeting the illustrious prisoner, and offering him the homage of the Churches they represented. From the congregations of Ephesus, Magnesia, and Tralles, deputations came to comfort him. To each of these Christian communities he addressed letters from Smyrna, exhorting them to obedience to their respective bishops, and warning them to avoid the contamination of heresy. These, letters are redolent with the spirit of Christian charity, apostolic zeal, and pastoral solicitude. While still there he wrote also to the Christians of Rome, begging them to do nothing to deprive him of the opportunity of martyrdom.
From Smyrna his captors took him to Troas, from which place he dispatched letters to the Christians of Philadelphia and Smyrna, and to Polycarp. Besides these letters, Ignatius had intended to address others to the Christian communities of Asia Minor, inviting them to give public expression to their sympathy with the brethren in Antioch, but the altered plans of his guards, necessitating a hurried departure, from Troas, defeated his purpose, and he was obliged to content himself with delegating this office to his friend Polycarp. At Troas they took ship for Neapolis. From this place their journey led them overland through Macedonia and Illyria. The next port of embarkation was probably Dyrrhachium (Durazzo). Whether having arrived at the shores of the Adriatic, he completed his journey by land or sea, it is impossible to determine. Not long after his arrival in Rome he won his long-coveted crown of martyrdom in the Flavian amphitheater. The relics of the holy martyr were borne back to Antioch by the deacon Philo of Cilicia, and Rheus Agathopus, a Syrian, and were interred outside the gates not far from the beautiful suburb of Daphne. They were afterwards removed by the Emperor Theodosius II to the Tychaeum, or Temple of Fortune which was then converted into a Christian church under the patronage of the martyr whose relics it sheltered. In 637 they were translated to St. Clement's at Rome, where they now rest. The Church celebrates the feast of St. Ignatius on 1 February.
The character of St. Ignatius, as deduced from his own and the extant writings of his contemporaries, is that of a true athlete of Christ. The triple honor of apostle, bishop, and martyr was well merited by this energetic soldier of the Faith. An enthusiastic devotion to duty, a passionate love of sacrifice, and an utter fearlessness in the defense of Christian truth, were his chief characteristics. Zeal for the spiritual well-being of those under his charge breathes from every line of his writings. Ever vigilant lest they be infected by the rampant heresies of those early days; praying for them, that their faith and courage may not be wanting in the hour of persecution; constantly exhorting them to unfailing obedience to their bishops; teaching them all Catholic truth ; eagerly sighing for the crown of martyrdom, that his own blood may fructify in added graces in the souls of his flock, he proves himself in every sense a true, pastor of souls, the good shepherd that lays down his life for his sheep.
The Catholic Encyclopedia

Wow Pope Francis Receives the Grand Imam for the 4th Time - Video

Pope Francis receives the Grand Imam of Al-Azhar
Pope Francis on October 16 received the Grand Imam of Egypt’s prestigious Al-Azhar Mosque.
Pope Francis received the Grand Imam of the prestigious Muslim al-Azhar Mosque of Egypt, Prof. Ahmad Muhammad Al-Tayyib, in a private visit, Tuesday afternoon, at the Casa Santa Marta in the Vatican, the Holy See’s Press Office said in a brief note.  
The two spiritual leaders have met a few times before, most importantly when the Pope visited Egypt, 28-29 April, 2017, on the invitation of the Grand Imam.   
During that visit, Pope Francis and the Grand Imam spoke at the closing of an international peace conference organized by the Al-Azhar University. FULL TEXT SHARE from Vatican News 

FULL TEXT from the Synod - Relatio with Moderator Cardinal Gracias Oswald

Relatio – Circulus Anglicus A
Moderator: Em.mo Card. GRACIAS Oswald
Relator: S.E. Mons. MARTIN Eamon
Reflecting on Part Two of the Working Document we recalled the energy and joy during many interventions in the Aula - particularly from our young people. The Synod came alive during their interventions. One of our bishops remarked, “I never realised a Synod could be so much fun!”
We felt that much of the introductory material might be integrated into the three following chapters on Vocation, Accompaniment and Discernment. The opening paragraph of Part Two explains that the “reference horizon for vocational discernment is “Christ’s call to live according to his intentions (73)”. Our Group was inspired, by John’s Gospel Chapter One, to highlight the importance of young people having an encounter with Jesus in their lives. If this is to happen, then someone needs to introduce them to Jesus - to point and say, as John the Baptist did, “Look, there is the Lamb of God who takes away the sins of the world”. The Church must offer our young people the great invitation to faith: “Come and see!”
The concrete realities in the lives of young people, which we faced during the first week of this Synod, reminded our Group of the young St Augustine whose heart was restless - weary from seeking God in passing attractions. In this restlessness some young people are already hearing Jesus asking them in their hearts: “What are you looking for?” Others may be brought to an encounter with Jesus by friends, or other significant people in their lives - just as Andrew introduced Jesus to Simon Peter, saying: “We have found the Messiah (Jn 1:41)”.
Our conviction is that Jesus can answer the yearnings of every heart. The “harvest is rich”, and we need more missionary disciples to introduce others to an encounter with Him. It is an encounter that is nourished by prayer, and found and celebrated in the Church.
It is important to remind ourselves that a life of faith and joy in Christ is not impeded by any human limitations of mind or body, by disabilities or social circumstance. We all possess a unique inner beauty given us by God. We are all called to a life of love which cannot be undone by failure, because the sacraments of Confirmation, Eucharist and Reconciliation act as bridges and ‘stepping stones’ back to the Father’s love; neither can death itself separate us from the love of God. The powerful testimony in the Aula of Safa Al Abbia from Iraq, and Sunday’s canonisation of Archbishop Oscar Romero remind us that, in pointing young people to the ‘Lamb of God’ we are not only offering the joy of living in faith, but also the fulfilment of dying in Christ.
As we began our reflection on “Vocation”, in Chapter Two, we were moved to quote words of Blessed John Cardinal Henry Newman:“God has created me to do Him some definite service; He has committed some work to me which He has not committed to another. I have my mission... I have a part in this great work; I am a link in a chain, a bond of connection between persons (Meditations on Christian Doctrine)”.
We recommend that the Synod final document presents a clear definition of vocation, rooted in a theology, anthropology and ecclesiology which reflect the signs of the times. Given that our Synod might be addressing not only Catholics but “all people of good will”, - including the so-called “nones”: those of no religious affiliation - we considered the fundamental human vocation as a vocation to love, which for Christians bears a name, and that name is Jesus. We see vocation as a voyage of search and discovery.
The term “vocation” itself is much debated and has been usefully unpacked in previous Church documents including “In Verbo Tuo” from the Congregation for Catholic Education (1997). We offer a modus exploring various dimensions of vocation. Our Group emphasised that underlying these dimensions is the fundamental call to align one’s mind and life to that of Christ, and to the will of God - the call to discipleship, which includes the call to eternal life. Gaudete et Exultate invites everyone to share deeply in the life of Jesus Christ. His life is the model, the exemplar of vocation, including his struggle with His Father’s will in the Garden of Gethsemane, and his total self-giving on the Cross - the highest expression of His love and the fullness of His vocation.
An aspect of vocation which we felt might be more fully explored was the “call and response” motif that is familiar to us in the scriptures. God’s call invites a definite response. The call of the prophets and others often includes a reluctant response, in many cases because of their sense of unworthiness. It is here that the grace of God and the promptings of the Holy Spirit become important.
The hopes for “a new Pentecost”, “a new springtime” of holiness to “rejuvenate” the Church have already been expressed in the Aula. We recommend a full paragraph on the sacrament of Confirmation and its links to the other sacraments ofinitiation. We long for a pouring forth of the gifts of the Spirit, and a rediscovery of the baptismal vocation and of the gifts and fruits of Confirmation. The Holy Spirit can rejuvenate the Church by inspiring married, consecrated, single and ordained people to bring their talents and charisms to the service of the Church, dedicated to the building up of the Kingdom and the consecration of the world. Hence all personal vocation is understood within the vocational landscape of the Church.
Our Group suggests a distinct treatment of the response of Mary to God’s call at the Annunciation, including her “Yes”, her “fiat”. We have offered a modus to that effect, including a reflection on the Marian principle and on Mary as the archetypal disciple.
Regarding Chapter Three and “discernment”, we felt that much of this material might be re-edited and more focussed. The catechism (CCC27) is clear that “the desire for God is written in the human heart”; we are created by God, and for God, who never ceases to draw us to himself. Only in God will we find the truth and happiness that we never stop searching for. The theologians in our Group debated the contribution of prudence, ‘consolation’ or ‘satisfaction’, and conscience in the discernment process; we have offered a modus on this for paragraph 117.
Of course, ‘knowing God’s will’ is not always easy. Young people often stand at the crossroads in life seeking the compass which will point them in the right direction. We recognised that, in a world of so many opportunities, it can be difficult for a young person to make choices, especially ones which might jolt them out of their comfort zones. But although some choices might be challenging, we felt that young people are still attracted by the radical call to make a real, heroic and prophetic difference in the world. As Pope Francis said in his homily at Sunday’s canonisation Mass: “Today Jesus invites us to return to the source of joy, which is the encounter with him, the courageous choice to risk everything to follow him, the satisfaction of leaving something behind in order to embrace his way.”
Our Group felt that Chapter Four on “accompaniment” would also benefit from clarification, particularly of the difference between the general support network offered by family, friends and schools to young people, and the specialist spiritual accompaniment provided by trained mentors. We noted that the importance of proper formation of mentors and the accompaniment/ supervision of mentors themselves is critical to their effectiveness as spiritual guides.
Finally, we felt strongly that the role of the Church in pastoral accompaniment as “Mater et Magistra”, and the distinct contribution of “pastors of souls” should be given much greater prominence in this chapter, in preparation for Part III. We have offered a modus on this.
[01611-EN.01] [Original text: English]

Pope Francis "Do I not open my heart to prayer, to the liberty of prayer, the liberty of almsgiving, the liberty of works of mercy?" Homily

Pope at Mass: Be careful around rigid Christians
“Salvation is a gift from God,” He gives us “the spirit of liberty.” In his homily during the daily Mass at Casa Santa Marta, Pope Francis warns us to watch out for hypocrites, whose hearts are not open to grace.
By Adriana Masotti
Pope Francis based his homily on the day’s Gospel, which tells how Jesus did not observe the prescribed cleansing when He was invited to dine at the home of a Pharisee. The Gospel relates the harsh response of Jesus at the “amazement” of the Pharisees. Doctors of the Law scandalized by Jesus
The Pope emphasized the difference between the love of the people for Jesus, who loved Him because He touched their hearts, and a little bit because of their own interest; and the hatred of the doctors of the Law, the scribes, the Sadducees, the Pharisees, who followed Him in order to catch Him in an error. They were the “pure”:
They were truly an example of formality. But they lacked life. They were, so to speak, “starched.” They were rigid. And Jesus knew their soul. This scandalizes us, because they were scandalized by the things Jesus did when He forgave sins, when He healed on the Sabbath. They rent their garments: “Oh! What a scandal! This is not from God, because He should have done this” [instead]. The people didn’t matter to them: the Law mattered to them, the prescriptions, the rubrics.”

Whitened sepulchres

Jesus, though, accepts the invitation of the Pharisee – because He is free – and He goes to him. The Pharisee was scandalized by His behaviour which went beyond the rules. But Jesus says to him, “You Pharisees cleanse the outside of the cup and the dish, [but] inside you are filled with plunder and evil.”
They are not beautiful words, eh? Jesus spoke clearly, He was not a hypocrite. He spoke clearly. And he said to them, “But why do you look at what is external? Look at what is within.” Another time He said to them, “You are whitened sepulchres.” Nice compliment, eh? Beautiful on the outside, all perfect… all perfect… but within, full of rottenness, therefore of greed, of wickedness, He says. Jesus distinguishes between appearances and internal reality. These lords are “doctors of appearances”: always perfect, always. But within, what is there?

Hypocrites interested only in appearances

Pope Francis recalled other passages in the Gospel when Jesus condemned such people, as He did in the parable of the Good Samaritan, or when He denounced their ostentatious manner of fasting and almsgiving. This, he said, is because they were interested only in appearances. “Jesus describes these people with one word: ‘hypocrites’.” They are people with greedy souls, capable of killing: “capable of paying to kill or calumniate, as happens every day. It happens today: they are paid to give bad news, news that smears others.”

Behind rigidity there are grave problems

In a word, Pope Francis continued, the Pharisees and doctors of the Law were rigid people, not disposed to change. “But always, under or behind rigidity, there are problems, grave problems,” the Pope said. We intend to have the appearance of being a good Christian; we intend to appear a certain way, we put make-up on our souls. However, Pope Francis said, behind these appearances, “there are problems. Jesus is not there. The spirit of the world is there.”
Do I open my heart?
Jesus calls them “foolish” and advises them to open their souls to love in order for grace to enter. Because “grace is a freely-given gift from God. No one saves himself, no one. No one saves himself, even with the practices of these people.”
Finally, the Pope warns us,
Be careful around those who are rigid. Be careful around Christians – be they laity, priests, bishops – who present themselves as so “perfect,” rigid. Be careful. There’s no Spirit of God there. They lack the spirit of liberty. And let us be careful with ourselves, because this should lead us to consider our own life. Do I seek to look only at appearance, and not change my heart? Do I not open my heart to prayer, to the liberty of prayer, the liberty of almsgiving, the liberty of works of mercy. 

FULL TEXT Release from Vatican News

#BreakingNews Beloved Catholic Priest Found Violently Killed after Kidnapping in Mexico

Tijuana (Agenzia Fides) - Some days after his death, on the afternoon of Saturday 13 October, in Ley del Servicio Civil area (Tijuana), the lifeless body of father Ícmar Arturo Orta was found. This was announced by the Archbishop of Tijuana, Mgr. Francisco Moreno Barron: "With deep sorrow, I communicate to the priests and deacons of the Presbytery of Tijuana, the death of dear Father Ícmar Arturo Orta.
Today (October 14) we will communicate this information to his parish community of San Luis Rey de Francia. Investigations are underway to find out the causes of his death. As soon as I have reliable information, I will let you know and inform you about the funeral".
Father Orta had disappeared since Thursday 11 October, after having celebrated mass in the Colonia Obrera area. According to information gathered by Agenzia Fides, a first report from the police points out that the priest’s body was found with his hands and feet bound and with signs of violence on his body. Yesterday afternoon, Sunday, October 14, the Archbishop wrote a message to the faithful of the parish of San Luis Rey de Francia to communicate the violent death of their parish priest: "To the pastoral parish Council, the group of catechists, groups, movements and to lay associations, to those who participate in the life of the parish church: to children, adolescents, young people and adults and in a very special way to the elderly and the sick: Dear brothers with deep sorrow, I inform you that God has called to his presence your dear parish priest Ícmar Arturo Orta". (CE) (Agenzia Fides, 15/10/2018)

How to make the Consecration to the Sacred Heart of Jesus - #1stFriday Promises and Instructions - Prayers - Share!

To Consecrate yourself and your family to the Sacred Heart of Jesus say the following prayer. This devotion was spread by St. Margaret Mary Alacoque who gave us this prayer:

 "O Sacred Heart of my Lord and Savior Jesus Christ, to Thee I consecrate and offer up my person and my life, my actions, trials and sufferings, that my entire being may henceforth only be employed in loving, honoring and glorifying Thee. This is my irrevocable will, to belong entirely to Thee, and to do all for Thy love, renouncing with my whole heart all that can displease Thee. "I take Thee, O Sacred Heart, for the sole object of my love, the protection of my life, the pledge of my salvation, the remedy of my frailty and inconstancy, the reparation for all the defects of my life, and my secure refuge at the hour of my death. . . I fear all from my own weakness and malice, but placing my entire confidence in Thee, O Heart of Love, I hope for all from Thine infinite goodness. Annihilate in me all that can displease or resist Thee. Imprint Thy pure love so deeply in my heart that I may never forget Thee or be separated from Thee. I beseech Thee, through Thine infinite goodness, grant that my name be engraved on Thy Heart for in this I place all my happiness and all my glory, to live and to die as one of Thy devoted servants. Amen.
PROMISES OF THE HEART OF JESUS FOR NINE FIRST FRIDAYS To Those that Live the Devotion to His Sacred Heart
The First Friday Devotion to the Sacred Heart of Jesus is based on a promise made by Our Lord Jesus Christ during an Apparition to St. Margaret Mary. This promise was implicitly approved by the Church in the 1920 canonization of St. Margaret Mary. The promise reads: "I promise you in the excessive Mercy of My Heart that My all-powerful Love will grant to all those who communicate on the First Friday in nine consecutive months the Grace of Final Penitence; they shall not die in My disgrace nor without receiving the Sacraments; My Divine Heart shall be their safe refuge in this last moment."
 Purpose of the Devotion: Reparation to the Heart of Jesus
 In order to receive these graces we should: 
 1-Recieve without interruption Holy Communion for nine consecutive first Fridays.
 2-Have the intention of honoring the Sacred Heart of Jesus persevering in our faith until the end.
3-Offer each Holy Communion as an act of expiation for the offenses committed against this Holy Sacrament.
 4-Pray: "O Lord, who in the Heart of Your Son, wounded by our sins, has deposited infinite treasures of grace - we pray, that upon receiving the homage of our love, we have offered you a sufficient reparation.
Through our Lord Jesus Christ. Amen. Heart of Jesus, I trust in You."
 Promises of the Sacred Heart of Jesus 
 1. I will give them all the graces necessary for their state of life.
2. I will give peace in their families.
3. I will console them in all their troubles.
4. I will be their refuge in life and especially in death.
5. I will abundantly bless all their undertakings.
6. Sinners shall find in my Heart the source and infinite ocean of mercy.
7. Tepid souls shall become fervent.
8. Fervent souls shall rise speedily to great perfection.
9. I will bless those places wherein the image of My Sacred Heart shall be exposed and venerated.
10. I will give to priests the power to touch the most hardened hearts.
 11. Persons who propagate this devotion shall have their names eternally written in my Heart.
12. In the excess of the mercy of my Heart, I promise you that my all powerful love will grant to all those who will receive Communion on the First Fridays, for nine consecutive months, the grace of final repentance: they will not die in my displeasure, nor without receiving the sacraments; and my Heart will be their secure refuge in that last hour. 

#BreakingNews Young Catholic Seminarian Killed in the Cameroon by Army - Please Pray

Yaoundé (Agenzia Fides) - A seminarian was killed in one of the two English-speaking regions of Cameroon. According to a statement signed by His Exc. Mgr. Cornelius Fontem Esua, Archbishop of Bamenda, the young seminarian was called Gérard Anjiangwe, and was 19 years old, he was killed by a group of soldiers on October 4, in front of the parish church of Santa Teresa of Bamessing, a village near Ndop in Ngo-Ketunjia department, in the northwest of Cameroon.
The Archdiocese's statement states that around 9.30 am, at the end of mass, while Gérard Anjiangwe and the faithful "were in front of the church, a military truck arrived from Ndop and stopped at the beginning of the road leading to the church. Some soldiers got out of the vehicle and started shooting.
While the faithful took refuge in the sacristy, barring the door, the seminarian prostrated himself on the floor and started to pray the rosary. "The military tried in vain to open the door; then they approached Gerard lying on the floor and ordered him to get up, which he did hesitantly", reports Mgr. Cornelius Fontem Esua.
After interrogating him, the soldiers ordered the seminarian to kneel again. "Then they shot him three times in the neck and he died instantly" says the Archbishop.
In his statement, Mgr. Cornelius Fontem Esua calls upon all Christians in this moment of sorrow to pray for the soul of Gérard and also for Stephen Akiata and Comfort Akiata, his parents, and his whole family since the seminarian was their only child".
The dramatic episode is part of the tensions that preceded and accompanied the presidential elections held on Sunday 7 October in the English-speaking regions of the Country.
According to the count carried out by the National Commission for the counting of votes, outgoing President, Paul Biya, obtained 71.28% of the votes. These are the conclusions contained in the report sent by the Commission to the Constitutional Council on 15 October. (L.M.) (Agenzia Fides, 16/10/2018)

Latest from the Synod - On Persecuted Chrstians and Drug Abuse - FULL Video

Synod of Bishops: Drugs and persecution - the forgotten issues
At the daily press briefing two forgotten issues were addressed by the Synod Fathers who were present.
  By Russell Pollitt, SJ
Dr Paolo Ruffini, Prefect of the Vatican Dicastery for Communications, began the daily press briefing saying that the work on the second part of the Instrumentum Laboris was complete.
He then listed many issues that the Synod assembly addressed. He mentioned issues like migration, freedom, sexual morality, the mystery of evil in the world, justice and the fight for human dignity. He also said that the fact that young people do not like hypocrisy was highlighted. He said that some ideas had been shared - things like bringing parishes together from different parts of the world so that young people can share information and learn about different contexts. He also said that there was a suggestion that parish structures are changed so that young people find a home in their local parish.


Archbishop Jaime Spengler, O.F.M., of Brazil, says that the Synod has spoken about many things but not addressed the issue of drugs sufficiently. This issue, in Brazil, affects many people and families. He said that although the comparison was poor because population numbers are so different, it is interesting to note that in Brazil more people are killed by drugs than by the war in Syria. He said that young people are tragic victims of the drug trade.
The Archbishop said that sectors in society want to liberalise some kinds of drugs. This, he said, is like promoting addiction and yet the state and society are not committed to helping young addicts. He said that many young addicts suffer and find it very difficult to turn back.
He said that the Church does extraordinary work and tries to create opportunities to help young people turn back. He urged that the Synod not forget the cruel reality of drugs. He said that drug dealers bring death and that it is hard to find a family that doesn’t face this problem. There is a massacre in the suburbs of the larger cities in Brazil every weekend that cries out for justice, the Archbishop said.


His Beatitude His Eminence Cardinal Louis Raphaël I Sako, Patriarch of Babylon of the Chaldeans, head of the Synod of the Chaldean, Iraq, said that in the Instrumentum Laborismany issues are named. He laments that there is no mention of young persecuted Christians.
Addressing the question of aid to the persecuted Christians, the Cardinal said that there have been many promises but nothing has materialised. He says that the international community must help Christians stay where they are, help create work, repairs their homes and give them hope. He says that allowing countries, like Iraq, to empty is a mortal sin. If Christians continue to leave he says that they would have lost their identity and heritage. He said that Hungary has made a significant contribution to help Christians in Iraq and Syria to rebuild their homes, schools and churches.
He said that bishops and priests have great responsibilities to listen to the dreams, hopes and fears of all young people.
Cardinal Sako said that young people are afraid of commitment, to both priesthood and religious life, as well as marriage. They are afraid that commitments will fail, he said.

Synod as a school or manual

Cardinal Sako said that the Synod was like a school in which everyone learns from each other. He said that the Synod is seeking a language that speaks to youth, Often, he noted, the Church uses traditional language but a new one is needed that is relevant to youth. The Cardinal also expressed the concern that there were too few young people at the Synod, he said that he had hoped for more to be present.
The Cardinal also said that it was not the final document that was important. What is important is the spirit and hope that the Synod offers young people.
Cardinal Peter Kodwo Appiah Turkson, prefect of the Dicastery for Promoting Integral Human Development, used the image of a “manual” to describe the work of the Synod. The Synod is like a gathering in which young people, with the bishops, are composing manuals for life. He said that as young people write the manual they are guided by values like those from Catholic Social Teaching. These principles, he said, will help give them a basic orientation for their lives.

Easy #Novena to St. Hedwig for those with #Money Problems - #StHedwig

NOVENA TO ST HEDWIG, PROTECTOR OF THE POOR AND THOSE IN DEBT – FEAST DAY: OCTOBER 16th (A novena – a prayer recited every day for nine days – may be made any time of the year.)
Say 1 Our Father, Hail Mary, Glory Be each day:
 O St Hedwig, in this world you rejected the honours of the Court, its pomp, luxury and pleasures, and went to be with the poor to help them in the destitution and misery of life. There in Heaven, cast a kind look on us poor mortals, and obtain for us the grace (mention your request) and that of living in the peace and friendship of God. Amen.
 V. Pray for us, St Hedwig!
R. So that we may be worthy of the promises of Christ. Let us pray: O God, You taught Blessed Hedwig to prefer, with all her heart, the humble road of Your Cross to the pomp of the world. Through her merits and example, grant that we may learn to reject the ephemeral delights of the world, and, embracing Your Cross, may we overcome the adversities to come. You who live and reign, One God, forever and ever.  “…if riches increase, set not your heart upon them.” (Ps 62:10b)

Saint October 16 : St. Margaret Mary Alacoque : Patron of Polio, Sacred Heart Devotion and Loss of Parents

Religious of the Visitation Order. Apostle of the Devotion to the Sacred Heart of Jesus,
Born at Lhautecour, France, 22 July, 1647;
Died at Paray-le-Monial, 17 October, 1690.

Consecration to the Sacred Heart of Jesus - 1st Friday Promises and Instructions - Prayers - Share! (http://jceworld.blogspot.ca/2014/10/consecration-to-sacred-heart-of-jesus.html)
Patron of:
those suffering with polio, devotees of the Sacred Heart, loss of parents
Her parents, Claude Alacoque and Philiberte Lamyn, were distinguished less for temporal possessions than for their virtue, which gave them an honourable position. From early childhood Margaret showed intense love for the Blessed Sacrament, and preferred silence and prayer to childish amusements. After her first communion at the age of nine, she practised in secret severe corporal mortifications, until paralysis confined her to bed for four years. At the end of this period, having made a vow to the Blessed Virgin to consecrate herself to religious life, she was instantly restored to perfect health. The death of her father and the injustice of a relative plunged the family in poverty and humiliation, after which more than ever Margaret found consolation in the Blessed Sacrament, and Christ made her sensible of His presence and protection. He usually appeared to her as the Crucified or the Ecce Homo, and this did not surprise her, as she thought others had the same Divine assistance. When Margaret was seventeen, the family property was recovered, and her mother besought her to establish herself in the world. Her filial tenderness made her believe that the vow of childhood was not binding, and that she could serve God at home by penance and charity to the poor. Then, still bleeding from her self-imposed austerities, she began to take part in the pleasures of the world. One night upon her return from a ball, she had a vision of Christ as He was during the scourging, reproaching her for infidelity after He had given her so many proofs of His love. During her entire life Margaret mourned over two faults committed at this time--the wearing of some superfluous ornaments and a mask at the carnival to please her brothers.
 On 25 May, 1671, she entered the Visitation Convent at Paray, where she was subjected to many trials to prove her vocation, and in November, 1672, pronounced her final vows. She had a delicate constitution, but was gifted with intelligence and good judgement, and in the cloister she chose for herself what was most repugnant to her nature, making her life one of inconceivable sufferings, which were often relieved or instantly cured by our Lord, Who acted as her Director, appeared to her frequently and conversed with her, confiding to her the mission to establish the devotion to His Sacred Heart. These extraordinary occurrences drew upon her the adverse criticism of the community, who treated her as a visionary, and her superior commanded her to live the common life. But her obedience, her humility, and invariable charity towards those who persecuted her, finally prevailed, and her mission, accomplished in the crucible of suffering, was recognized even by those who had shown her the most bitter opposition.
Margaret Mary was inspired by Christ to establish the Holy Hour and to pray lying prostrate with her face to the ground from eleven till midnight on the eve of the first Friday of each month, to share in the mortal sadness He endured when abandoned by His Apostles in His Agony, and to receive holy Communion on the first Friday of every month. In the first great revelation, He made known to her His ardent desire to be loved by men and His design of manifesting His Heart with all Its treasures of love and mercy, of sanctification and salvation. He appointed the Friday after the octave of the feast of Corpus Christi as the feast of the Sacred Heart; He called her "the Beloved Disciple of the Sacred Heart", and the heiress of all Its treasures. The love of the Sacred Heart was the fire which consumed her, and devotion to the Sacred Heart is the refrain of all her writings. In her last illness she refused all alleviation, repeating frequently: "What have I in heaven and what do I desire on earth, but Thee alone, O my God", and died pronouncing the Holy Name of Jesus.
The discussion of the mission and virtues of Margaret Mary continued for years. All her actions, her revelations, her spiritual maxims, her teachings regarding the devotion to the Sacred Heart, of which she was the chief exponent as well as the apostle, were subjected to the most severe and minute examination, and finally the Sacred Congregation of rites passed a favourable vote on the heroic virtues of this servant of God. In March, 1824, Leo XII pronounced her Venerable, and on 18 September, 1864, Pius IX declared her Blessed. When her tomb was canonically opened in July, 1830, two instantaneous cures took place. Her body rests under the altar in the chapel at Paray, and many striking favours have been obtained by pilgrims attracted thither from all parts of the world. Her feast is celebrated on 17 October. [Editor's Note: St. Margaret Mary was canonized by Benedict XV in 1920. Her feast is now 16 October.] Text from The Catholic Encyclopedia

#BreakingNews Bishop Accused of Rape in Kerala, India now on Bail and Reports to Police every 2 Weeks

Kerala, bishop arrested for rape on bail by Nirmala Carvalho
Msgr. Franco Mulakkal must remain available to the investigators of the town where the case is open. The prelate must also hand over his passport and report to the police every two weeks.
Mumbai (AsiaNews) – There has been a turnaround in the case of the bishop arrested for the alleged rape of a nun of the Missionaries of Jesus. This morning the High Court of Kerala granted Msgr. Franco Mulakkal, outgoing bishop of Jalandhar (in Punjab), release on bail. It is a u-turn compared to the magistrates previous repeated denial of any request for release presented by his lawyers. The judges have established precise conditions for his release: Msgr. Mulakkal will have to remain in the district of Kottayam, where the prison in which he was held is located, and will not be able to travel freely in the State of Kerala; he must hand over his passport and must report to the police station every 15 days. Furthermore, he must remain available to investigators and submit to any questioning, if requested.
The prelate was jailed on September 21 last. The accusations against Msgr. Mulakkal dates back to last July, but his case broke in mid-September following protests by some sisters in Kerala. He is accused of multiple sexual violence against a nun, but has always reiterated his innocence. In turn, he claims that the allegations are motivated by personal envies of the religious, whom he removed from the role of superior of the congregation in Punjab.
In all this time, in Msgr. Mulakkal continued to pray and claim innocence. In a note from the president of the bishops, Card. Oswald Gracias, has invited all to pray for all the people involved in the affair .
FULL TEXT Share from AsiaNewsIT

Pope Francis World Food Day Message "...the Catholic Church, ..struggles daily throughout the world against hunger and malnutrition..." FULL TEXT


To Professor José Graziano da Silva
Director General of the Food and Agriculture Organization
for World Food Day 2018

Distinguished Director General,
1. The annual celebration of World Food Day emphasizes, in today’s international context, the needs, yearnings and hopes of millions of persons who lack bread each day. Increasingly, there are more people who sadly make up part of that great number of human beings who have nothing, or almost nothing, to eat. It should be the opposite and yet recent statistics are a painful proof of how international solidarity appears to be cooling. And when solidarity is lacking, everyone today is conscious that technical solutions and projects, including the most developed, are not capable of facing up to the sadness and bitterness of those who are suffering because they cannot feed themselves sufficiently and in a healthy way.
The theme that concerns us this year, Our actions are our future: A Zero Hunger world by 2030 is possible, becomes an urgent call to responsibility on the part of all those actors who are in agreement with the objectives of the 2030 Agenda for Sustainable Development, a rallying cry to wake us from the slumber that often paralyzes and inhibits us. It cannot be just another day, contenting ourselves with amassing information or satisfying our curiosity. We have to “become painfully aware, to dare to turn what is happening to the world into our own personal suffering and thus to discover what each of us can do about it” (Laudato Si΄, 19). As a consequence, we are all invited, especially the FAO, its member States, the national and international organs and institutions, civil society and all persons of good will, to redouble our commitment so that no one lacks the necessary food, neither in quantity nor in quality.
2. The poor expect from us an effective help that takes them out of their misery, not mere propositions or agreements that, after studying in a detailed way the roots of their misery, bear as their fruit only solemn events, pledges that never materialize, or impressive publications destined only to enlarge library catalogues. In this twenty-first century that has seen considerable advances in the field of technology, science, communications and infrastructure, we ought to feel shame for not having achieved the same advances in humanity and solidarity, and so satisfy the primary needs of the most disadvantaged. Neither can we console ourselves simply for having faced emergencies and desperate situations of those most in need. We are all called to go further. We can and we must do better for the helpless. We must move to concrete action, so that the scourge of hunger disappears completely. This requires policies of cooperation for development which, as the 2030 Agenda indicates, are oriented towards the real needs of the poor. It is also necessary to give particular attention to the levels of agricultural production, access to food markets, involvement in initiatives and actions and, above all, to the realization that, when it comes to making decisions, countries are equal in dignity. It is also essential to understand that, when it is a question of effectively confronting the causes of hunger, grandiose declarations will not definitively eradicate this scourge. The struggle against hunger urgently demands generous financing, the abolition of trade barriers and, above all, greater resilience in the face of climate change, economic crises and warfare.
3. One of the principles that must guide our life and our commitment is the conviction that “time is greater than space” (Evangelii Gaudium, 222), which means that we have to drive forward, with clarity, conviction and tenacity, processes sustained over time. The future is not up somewhere in the clouds, but is rather built by promoting and accompanying processes of greater humanization. We can dream of a future without hunger, but this is only reasonable when we engage in tangible processes, vital relations, effective plans and real commitments. The Zero Hunger 2030 initiative offers a favourable framework for this and, without doubt, will serve to fulfill the second of the Sustainable Development Goals of the 2030 Agenda, which seeks “to end hunger, achieve food security and improved nutrition, and promote sustainable agriculture.” Some may say that we still have twelve years ahead in which to carry this out. Nevertheless, the poor cannot wait. Their devastating circumstances do not allow this. That is why we must act in an urgent, coordinated and orderly way. An advantage of these proposals is that they provide specific goals, quantifiable objectives and precise indicators. We know that we have to combine harmoniously two ways of offering assistance, both long-term and short-term actions, in order to deal with the concrete realities of those who, today, suffer the distressing and painful onslaught of hunger and malnutrition.
4. If in past years the activities of the FAO and of other international institutions have been characterized by tension between the long and the short term, so that a variety of programs and interventions could come together in the same area, today we know well that it is equally essential to unite together both the global and the local levels in response to the challenge of hunger. In this sense, the 2030 Agenda, with the Sustainable Development Goals, and the Zero Hunger initiative, require international entities, like the FAO, to engage responsibly the member States so that they can undertake and implement initiatives at the local level. Global indicators are of no use if our commitment does not correspond to the reality on the ground. It is vital, therefore, that the priorities and the measures enshrined in important programs should be firmly established and shared widely, so as to avoid individualistic approaches, facing together and in a determined way the challenge to combat hunger and misery. This must be done in the context of suitable institutional, social and economic support that offers fruitful initiatives and solutions so that the poor do not feel overlooked yet again.
5. We do indeed have the adequate means and framework so that beautiful words and good wishes may become an action plan of substance that leads effectively to the eradication of hunger in our world. To this end we need joint efforts, upright hearts, and persistent concern to firmly and resolutely make the other’s problem one’s own. And yet, as with other pressing issues that affect humanity, we often encounter immense obstacles to solving problems. We find inevitable barriers that are the fruit of indecision or delays, and a lack of enthusiasm on the part of responsible political leaders who are often absorbed purely by electoral concerns or are focused on biased, transitory or limited perspectives. There is a fundamental lack of political will. What is needed is the willingness to end hunger, and this ultimately will not happen without a moral conviction that is shared by all peoples and all religious persuasions, where the integral good of the person is at the heart of all initiatives and consists in “doing to another what we would want done to ourselves.” We are speaking of an action based on solidarity among all nations and of the means that express the disposition of the people.
6. To pass from words to action in order to eradicate hunger requires not only political decision-making and effective planning. It is likewise necessary to overcome a reactive approach by allowing room for a more proactive vision. A superficial and fleeting view, in the best of cases, can provoke instant reactions. In this way we overlook the structural aspects that shroud the tragedy of hunger: extreme inequality, poor distribution of the world’s resources, consequences of climate change and the interminable and bloody conflicts which ravage many regions, to mention only some of its causes. We need to develop an approach that is more proactive and more sustained over time, we need an increase of funds destined to foster peace and the development of peoples. We need to suppress weaponry and the deadly arms trade in order to hear the voice of those who cry desperately, seeing themselves abandoned on the peripheries of life and progress. If we really want the world’s population to adopt this perspective, it is imperative that civil society, media and educational institutions join forces in the right direction. From now until 2030 we have 12 years to set up initiatives that are vigorous and consistent; not giving in to occasional spurts or intermittent and fleeting headlines, but rather facing up unremittingly to hunger and its causes in a spirit of solidarity, justice and consistency.
7. These, Director General, are some reflections that I wish to share with those men and women who do not allow themselves to succumb to indifference; who hear the cry of those who do not have the minimum needed to lead a dignified life. For her part, the Catholic Church, in the exercise of the mission with which her divine Founder has entrusted her, struggles daily throughout the world against hunger and malnutrition in multiple ways and through her various structures and associations, remembering that those who suffer from misery are not different from us. They share our flesh and blood. They deserve, then, a friendly hand to help and support them, in such a way that no one is left behind, so that in our world fraternal solidarity may boast its own identity card and citizenship, beyond any flashy slogans void of substance.
I pray to the Almighty that this journey of pioneering and favouring concrete actions for a future marked by peaceful and fruitful coexistence may be filled with his blessings, for our good and the good of the generations to come.
From the Vatican, 16 October 2018


Today's Mass Readings and Video : Tuesday October 16, 2018 - #Eucharist

Tuesday of the Twenty-eighth Week in Ordinary Time
Lectionary: 468

Reading 1GAL 5:1-6

Brothers and sisters:
For freedom Christ set us free;
so stand firm and do not submit again to the yoke of slavery.

It is I, Paul, who am telling you
that if you have yourselves circumcised,
Christ will be of no benefit to you.
Once again I declare to every man who has himself circumcised
that he is bound to observe the entire law.
You are separated from Christ,
you who are trying to be justified by law;
you have fallen from grace.
For through the Spirit, by faith, we await the hope of righteousness.
For in Christ Jesus,
neither circumcision nor uncircumcision counts for anything,
but only faith working through love.

Responsorial PsalmPS 119:41, 43, 44, 45, 47, 48

R. (41a) Let your mercy come to me, O Lord.
Let your mercy come to me, O LORD,
your salvation according to your promise.
R. Let your mercy come to me, O Lord.
Take not the word of truth from my mouth,
for in your ordinances is my hope.
R. Let your mercy come to me, O Lord.
And I will keep your law continually,
forever and ever.
R. Let your mercy come to me, O Lord.
And I will walk at liberty,
because I seek your precepts.
R. Let your mercy come to me, O Lord.
And I will delight in your commands,
which I love.
R. Let your mercy come to me, O Lord.
And I will lift up my hands to your commands
and meditate on your statutes.
R. Let your mercy come to me, O Lord.

AlleluiaHEB 4:12

R. Alleluia, alleluia.
The word of God is living and effective,
able to discern reflections and thoughts of the heart.
R. Alleluia, alleluia.

GospelLK 11:37-41

After Jesus had spoken,
a Pharisee invited him to dine at his home.
He entered and reclined at table to eat.
The Pharisee was amazed to see
that he did not observe the prescribed washing before the meal.
The Lord said to him, "Oh you Pharisees!
Although you cleanse the outside of the cup and the dish,
inside you are filled with plunder and evil.
You fools!
Did not the maker of the outside also make the inside?
But as to what is within, give alms,
and behold, everything will be clean for you."

Saint October 16 : St. Marguerite d'Youville : Patron of difficult #Marriages, #Widows and #Victims of Adultery

St. Marguerite d'Youville
Feast: October 16 (Canada)
Feast Day:
October 16
15 October 1701, Varennes, Quebec
23 December 1771, Montreal, Canada
9 December 1990, by Pope John Paul II
Major Shrine:
Chapel of St. Marie Marguerite d'Youville, near Montreal
Patron of:
Against death of children, difficult marriages, in-law problems, loss of parents, opposition of Church authorities, people ridiculed for piety, victims of adultery, victims of unfaithfulness, widows

MARGUERITE d'YOUVILLE, Marie-Marguerite Dufrost de Lajemmerais was born in Varennes, Quebec, on October 15, 1701. Her father had come from Brittany, France in 1687. Her mother was the daughter of a military officer from Carignan, Quebec, who had been governor of the settlement at Trois-Rivières. Marguerite’s mother’s brother was the explorer Pierre de la Vérendrye. The eldest of six children, Marguerite was only seven years old when her father died. There were hard times for the family because her mother had to wait six years before she began receiving the officers’ widows’ pension. Thanks to the help of her great-grandfather, Pierre Boucher, Marguerite was able to study at the Ursuline boarding school for girls in Quebec City for two years. At 12, she returned to her family to help teach her brothers and sisters. On August 12, 1722, she married François d’Youville. A fur and alcohol trader, he was unreliable and rather selfish. He died in 1730, leaving Marguerite, who was pregnant for the sixth time, with two living children and a lot of debt. In 1737, she rented a house in Montreal where she gave hospitality to women in need. She and three companions made private religious vows. Because they broke social barriers by taking in the needy, the women were scorned, slandered and persecuted. Marguerite was accused of trafficking in alcohol with the First Nations people as her husband had done, with, it was said, the collaboration of the Sulpicians. She was accused of drunkenness and even prostitution. In 1747, Marguerite was put in charge of the administration of the Charon Brothers Hospital. When her term was up in 1750, she wrote to France for help and offered to pay the hospital’s debts. The King, Louis XV, confirmed her as director of the hospital on June 3, 1753, and authorized her to form a religious community which was approved by the Most Rev. Henri-Marie de Pontbriand, Bishop of Quebec, in 1755. To meet the financial needs of the hospital, Marguerite used her administrative talents and started up various activities such as needlework, dressmaking and tailoring, and the manufacture of military flags, clothing for Native people, hosts and candles. She also ran a tavern, sold tobacco, lime, building materials, and sand. The hospital welcomed a wide variety of people, including the poor, epileptics, lepers, battered women, and sick priests. During the wars leading up to the Conquest of 1760, her door was open to prisoners, the sick and the wounded of both sides. Beginning in 1754, Mother d’Youville also took in abandoned children. In 1765, the General Hospital burned down. It took four years, but she got it rebuilt. On December 9 and 13, 1771, she had attacks of paralysis and she died on December 23. She was canonized on December 9, 1990 by Pope (now Saint) John Paul II. Her Spirituality With the Ursulines, Marguerite grew in the practice of the apostolic prayer of Marie of the Incarnation who had founded the girls’ school in Quebec City a century earlier. Marguerite wrote: “It is by the Heart of my Jesus, my Way, my Truth, and my Life, that I approach you, O eternal Father.” She was intelligent and she had good judgment and a well-developed sense of responsibility. She was convinced that the “the cross was the sign of love by which the Father of Mercy brought his elect into conformity with his Son.” She was strong and hard-working and she was a teacher who “knew how to be respected and how to be loved.” When she was 27, her heart broken by the scandalous life of her husband, she was struck by the revelation of God’s personal love for her. Her spiritual life became one of trust in, and abandon to, divine Providence. After his death, she had to provide for her family while his estate was settled. At the same time, she visited the poor, the prisoners and the sick, and begged for funds to provide a proper burial for criminals who had died. In 1737, still looking after her children, she formed with three companions an association of “young women, secular in habits, but religious in their hearts” who consecrated themselves “in perpetuity to the service of the poor.” In the memoir that she wrote in 1752, she said, “Providence and our hard work are the resources we count on to carry on the work.” She took in “found” children in order “to preserve them body and soul, to offer them a Christian education and help them prepare to earn an honest living.” After a fire, which destroyed her building in 1765, she and her Sisters prayed the Te Deum and said, “The Lord gave us everything, the Lord has taken everything away, may his Name be praised forever.” At the end of her life, she said, “We have always been on the verge of losing everything, but we have always had what we needed.” The Rule of the Institute recommends “seeing Christ in the person of the poor who have the honour of being incorporated in Him.” Poverty, humility and submission did not erase awareness of understanding the humaneness. Marguerite asked each of her Sisters “to make known her needs, without hiding her infirmities, and not to undertake anything that would damage her health.” Within the community, she wanted “perfect union, with one heart and one soul, always considerate and supportive of each other in our weakness, knowing that we need a greater love to bear our own.” To obtain that, the Sisters should “draw from the Divine Paternity the feelings of love, tender solicitude, and compassion that will sustain them in helping the poor, the sick and the orphan.” Marguerite d’Youville’s spirituality can be summed up in three words: “Father, Providence, Poor”. Her love was universal and adapted itself so well to every kind of distress, that it was common for people to say, “Go to the Grey Nuns. They will never refuse to help you.” 
Pope John XXIII beatified Marguerite on May 3, 1959 and called her "Mother of Universal Charity." She was canonized by Pope John Paul II, December 9, 1990.