Saturday, April 10, 2021

Divine Mercy Explained with Prayers, Free Resources and Indulgence Rules to Know and Share! #DivineMercy


Divine Mercy Sunday is a Feast celebrated the Sunday after Easter (2021 on April 11). It comes from the visions of a Polish Nun, Sister Maria Faustina Kowalska, that began on February 21, 1931. In 2000, Pope John Paul II canonized St. Faustina and, during the ceremony, he declared:

It is important then that we accept the whole message that comes to us from the word of God on this Second Sunday of Easter, which from now on throughout the Church will be called “Divine Mercy Sunday”.
She saw a vision of Jesus standing and was told to have the image made with the prayer : JESUS I TRUST IN YOU. The visions that speak of Jesus' great mercy for sinners if they come to him lasted from 1931-1938.

SEE ALSO: 
PLENARY INDULGENCE
Pope John Paul II established that this Sunday have a plenary indulgence, 
In this way, they can foster a growing love for God and for their neighbour, and after they have obtained God’s pardon, they in turn might be persuaded to show a prompt pardon to their brothers and sisters. . . .
a plenary indulgence, granted under the usual conditions (sacramental confession, Eucharistic communion and prayer for the intentions of Supreme Pontiff) to the faithful who, on the Second Sunday of Easter or Divine Mercy Sunday, in any church or chapel, in a spirit that is completely detached from the affection for a sin, even a venial sin, take part in the prayers and devotions held in honour of Divine Mercy, or who, in the presence of the Blessed Sacrament exposed or reserved in the tabernacle, recite the Our Father and the Creed, adding a devout prayer to the merciful Lord Jesus (e.g. Merciful Jesus, I trust in you!”).
Sister Faustina was declared a Saint by Pope John Paul II on in 2000. Divine Mercy Sunday was instituted at the same time.
It is a universal Feast for the entire Church. The promise of Jesus to St. Faustina was: "I want to grant a complete pardon to the souls that will go to Confession and receive Holy Communion... on the Feast of My mercy. Whoever approaches the Fountain of Life on this day will be granted complete forgiveness of sins and punishment."
Our Lord also asked…"I demand from you deeds of mercy, which are to arise out of love for Me. You are to show mercy to your neighbors always and everywhere.
Here are the DIRECTIONS for fulfillment of Divine Mercy promise for the Sunday:
The Divine Mercy Message and Devotion

1. Celebrate the Feast of the Divine Mercy Sunday
 2. Sincerely repent of all our sins
3. Place our complete trust in Jesus
4. Go to Confession, preferably before that Sunday (or within a week) (during the Pandemic it is sometimes impossible to go to Confession - thus a perfect Act of Contrition and promise to go to Confession is possible) O my God, I am heartily sorry for having offended Thee, and I detest all my sins, because I dread the loss of Heaven and the pains of hell, but most of all because they offend Thee, my God, Who art all good and deserving of all my love. i firmly resolve, with the help of they grace to confess my sins, do penance, and ammend my life. Amen.
5. Receive Holy Communion on the day of the Feast  (during the Pandemic make a Spiritual Communion)
6. Venerate the Image of The Divine Mercy
7. Be merciful to others, through our actions, words, and prayers on their behalf.    
8. Say the Chaplet of the Divine Mercy Prayer (Instructions below)

1. Begin with the Sign of the Cross, 1 Our Father, 1 Hail Mary and The Apostles Creed.
2. Then on the Our Father Beads say the following:
Eternal Father, I offer You the Body and Blood, Soul and Divinity of Your dearly beloved Son, Our Lord Jesus Christ, in atonement for our sins and those of the whole world.

3. On the 10 Hail Mary Beads say the following:
For the sake of His sorrowful Passion, have mercy on us and on the whole world.

(Repeat step 2 and 3 for all five decades).

4. Conclude with (three times):
Holy God, Holy Mighty One, Holy Immortal One, have mercy on us and on the whole world.

Then say: (optional)
O Blood and Water that gushed forth from the Heart of Jesus as a fountain of mercy for us, I trust in You.

Eternal God, in whom mercy is endless and the treasury
of compassion --- inexhaustible, look kindly upon us and increase Your mercy in us, that in difficult moments we might not despair nor become despondent, but with
great confidence submit ourselves to Your holy will,
which is Love and Mercy itself.
Sister Faustina who gave us the Chaplet from God acknowledges the following:

"I saw an Angel, the executor of God's wrath... about to strike
the earth...I began to beg God earnestly for the world with words
which I heard interiorly. As I prayed in this way, I saw the
Angel's helplessness, and he could not carry out the just
punishment...."

"Say unceasingly this chaplet that I have taught you. Anyone who
says it will receive great Mercy at the hour of death. Priests
will recommend it to sinners as the last hope. Even the most
hardened sinner, if he recites this Chaplet even once, will
receive grace from My Infinite Mercy. I want the whole world to
know My Infinite Mercy. I want to give unimaginable graces to
those who trust in My Mercy...."

"....When they say this Chaplet in the presence of the dying, I
will stand between My Father and the dying person not as the just
judge but as the Merciful Savior".

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FOR MORE INFORMATION:
http://www.thedivinemercy.org/

Divine Mercy Sunday Mass Online : Sunday April 11, 2021 - Eucharist in Your Virtual Church - 2nd Sunday of #Easter Holy Mass



Second Sunday of Easter
Sunday of Divine Mercy
Lectionary: 44
Reading I
Acts 4:32-35
The community of believers was of one heart and mind,
and no one claimed that any of his possessions was his own,
but they had everything in common.
With great power the apostles bore witness
to the resurrection of the Lord Jesus,
and great favor was accorded them all.
 
 There was no needy person among them,
for those who owned property or houses would sell them,
bring the proceeds of the sale,
and put them at the feet of the apostles,
and they were distributed to each according to need.
Responsorial Psalm
118:2-4, 13-15, 22-24
R.  (1) Give thanks to the Lord for he is good, his love is everlasting.
or:
R.  Alleluia.
Let the house of Israel say,
    “His mercy endures forever.”
Let the house of Aaron say,
    “His mercy endures forever.”
Let those who fear the LORD say,
    “His mercy endures forever.”
R.  Give thanks to the Lord for he is good, his love is everlasting.
or:
R.  Alleluia.
I was hard pressed and was falling,
    but the LORD helped me.
My strength and my courage is the LORD,
    and he has been my savior.
The joyful shout of victory
    in the tents of the just:
R.  Give thanks to the Lord for he is good, his love is everlasting.
or:
R.  Alleluia.
The stone which the builders rejected
    has become the cornerstone.
By the LORD has this been done;
    it is wonderful in our eyes.
This is the day the LORD has made;
    let us be glad and rejoice in it.
R.  Give thanks to the Lord for he is good, his love is everlasting.
or:
R.  Alleluia.
Reading II
1 Jn 5:1-6
Beloved:
Everyone who believes that Jesus is the Christ is begotten by God,
and everyone who loves the Father
loves also the one begotten by him.
In this way we know that we love the children of God
when we love God and obey his commandments.
For the love of God is this,
that we keep his commandments.
And his commandments are not burdensome,
for whoever is begotten by God conquers the world.
And the victory that conquers the world is our faith.
Who indeed is the victor over the world
but the one who believes that Jesus is the Son of God?
This is the one who came through water and blood, Jesus Christ,
not by water alone, but by water and blood.
The Spirit is the one that testifies,
and the Spirit is truth.
Alleluia
Jn 20:29
R. Alleluia, alleluia.
You believe in me, Thomas, because you have seen me, says the Lord;
Blessed are those who have not seen me, but still believe!
R. Alleluia, alleluia.
Gospel
Jn 20:19-31
On the evening of that first day of the week,
when the doors were locked, where the disciples were,
for fear of the Jews,
Jesus came and stood in their midst
and said to them, “Peace be with you.”
When he had said this, he showed them his hands and his side.
The disciples rejoiced when they saw the Lord.
Jesus said to them again, “Peace be with you.
As the Father has sent me, so I send you.”
And when he had said this, he breathed on them and said to them,
“Receive the Holy Spirit.
Whose sins you forgive are forgiven them,
and whose sins you retain are retained.”
Thomas, called Didymus, one of the Twelve,
was not with them when Jesus came.
So the other disciples said to him, “We have seen the Lord.”
But he said to them,
“Unless I see the mark of the nails in his hands
and put my finger into the nailmarks
and put my hand into his side, I will not believe.”
Now a week later his disciples were again inside
and Thomas was with them.
Jesus came, although the doors were locked, 
and stood in their midst and said, “Peace be with you.”
Then he said to Thomas, “Put your finger here and see my hands,
and bring your hand and put it into my side,
and do not be unbelieving, but believe.”
Thomas answered and said to him, “My Lord and my God!”
Jesus said to him, “Have you come to believe because you have seen me?
Blessed are those who have not seen and have believed.”
Now Jesus did many other signs in the presence of his disciples
that are not written in this book.
But these are written that you may come to believe
that Jesus is the Christ, the Son of God,
and that through this belief you may have life in his name.
Prayer to Make a Spiritual Communion-
People who cannot communicate now make spiritual communion
At your feet, O my Jesus I bow down and offer you the repentance of my contrite heart, which abysses itself into its nothingness and Your holy presence. I adore you in the Sacrament of Your love, the ineffable Eucharist. I wish to receive you in the poor home that my heart offers you. In anticipation of the happiness of sacramental communion, I want to possess you in spirit. Come to me, oh my Jesus, that I may come to you. May Your love inflame my whole being, for life and death. I believe in you, I hope in you, I love you. So be it. Amen

Saint April 11 : St. Gemma Galgani - Patron of Students, Pharmacists, Tuberculosis Patients, Love and Hope


St. Gemma Galgani
STIGMATIST

Feast Day:
April 11
Born:
12 March 1878 at Borgo Nuovo di Camigliano, Lucca, Tuscany, Italy
Died:
Holy Saturday, 11 April 1903 at Borgo Nuovo di Camigliano, Lucca, Italy
Canonized:
2 May 1940 by Pope Pius XII
Major Shrine:
Passionist Monastery in Lucca, Italy
Patron of:
Students, pharmacists, tuberculosis patients, love and hope

Born at Camigliano in Tuscany, she suffered from 'tuberculosis of the spine with aggravated curvature', and, though she considered herself cured by a vision of the young Saint Gabriel Possenti, she could not obtain a certificate of health enabling her to enter a convent, as she wished. She had many 'abnormal' experiences from June 1899 onwards, including the 'stigmata' in hands and feet, carefully examined by her confessor and biographer, the Passionist Fr Germano. These began to appear about 8 p.m. on a Thursday and lasted till 3 p.m. on the Friday. No pain preceded their apparition, but only a deep recollection. There was seen first a discoloration on the back and palm of each hand; then a 'rent in the flesh' under the skin which then split, and a deep laceration was observed, at least usually: the holes above and below corresponded and the perforations seemed complete, but it was hard to judge of this because they kept firing up with blood, partly flowing, partly congealing. Fr Germano measured the diameters and shapes of the wounds carefully, and noted that 'a few times' a sort of fleshy swelling, like a nail-head, about an inch across, covered the wounds in the hands (though not those in the feet): 'The deep wounds were the more usual state of Gemma's stigmata—I say, the more usual state'. He also says that directly the Friday ecstasy was over, 'the flow of blood from all < five> wounds ceased immediately; the raw flesh healed; the lacerated tissues healed too': at least by Sunday not a vestige remained of the deep 'cavities'; the new skin was smooth, though 'whitish marks' remained on it. Much more could be said about this saint, but this account suffices as occasion for explaining the principles governing the Church's approach to these and allied phenomena.
First, the Congregation of Rites, declaring that Gemma practiced the Christian virtues to a heroic degree, explicitly refrained from passing judgment on the preternatural character of the recorded phenomena; a matter (it adds) 'upon which no decision is ever made' (see <Acta Apostolicae Sedis> vol. xxiv [1932], p. 57, and Thurston: <Physical Phenomena of Mysticism>, ed. J. H. Crehan, chapter 11, especially pp. 52-54).
We must first register the alleged <facts> presented to us for observation, and then consider the evidence. Only then may we tentatively embark on <interpretation>. So we notice that before the time of St. Francis of Assisi there can be quoted only two or three instances of stigmatization of doubtful character: but since St. Francis, instances become almost innumerable up to the present day. We start by excluding those where self-inflicted wounds can even be suspected; for there have been instances of downright imposture, of misguided asceticism-conscious or possibly unconscious. This cannot apply to Gemma Galgani, since the gradual appearance and disappearance of her wounds was scrupulously <watched>. Again, all instances of complete stigmatization (save probably two) are found in women, and usually (though by no means always) in women who lead an enclosed and constantly meditative life; this suggests that the mind can influence the body-as it obviously can: a <thought> can make one blush, or turn pale. Further, an ecstatica's stigmata (or visions) not seldom correspond with some picture or effigy that she habitually sees: the marks of the scourging on Gemma are said to reproduce those on a crucifix she contemplated; Catherine Emmerich and others 'see' our Lord on a Y-shaped cross like one they were accustomed to; some will see Him crucified with three, others with four, nails; the wound of the lance may be on the right, or again on the left. We may therefore grant that <even if> a supernatural grace be granted to the soul, the mind, helped by the imagination, may proceed to interpret it to itself by means of such ideas or images as it possesses or prefers. But how far can the 'mind' influence the body? 'Dermatography'—marks on the skin, usually disappearing soon—can undoubtedly be induced by suggestion, whether it be self-suggestion or administered by another; but can suggestion cause lesions of the tissues, persisting and not becoming gangrenous? The word 'hysteria' should now be left aside—the ugly word 'pithiatism' may be replacing it—it merely means 'suggestibility'. Now there is no fault in being 'suggestible'; one person may lie abnormally open to the stimulus of anger, fear, sex or pity. If then we seek the nature of the stimulus lying behind the bodily manifestations observed in one who, on other grounds, is judged to be of exceptional holiness, we can prudently suppose that it is love for God, for Christ incarnate, or crucified, which so moves the entire 'subject'—body-mind—as to produce the exterior phenomena. The miracle would then lie in the intensity of the love for God granted to a human soul; the physical consequences of so super-human a love might be quite incalculable, by no means necessarily the stigmata, though possibly including them: indeed, disconcerting symptoms might well co-exist with those that might be expected, and should by no means be at once ascribed to diabolic influences. The description of all abnormal symptoms of the sort under discussion should be purely clinical, not rhetorical or pietistic.

St. Gemma Galgani was beatified in 1933, and canonized in 1940. Text Source: The Autobiography of St. Gemma Galgani
***
Prayer to St Gemma asking for her intercession
Oh holy Gemma, I am near you, help me to pray. You know what I and those near me need; look after my urgent needs and my spiritual and material wants. You take care of them! I confide in you and entrust all to your loving care. 
Offer up to Jesus that tender and constant care that you bore Him here on earth.
Oh holy Gemma, you who physically suffered all the pains of the Passion of Jesus, I beseech of you the grace to meditate on and live the Passion of Jesus, and the sufferings of Holy Mary. Pray that I will be able to walk in the path of humility, simplicity, love and sacrifice, fulfilling at all times and in all ways, the holy will of God. Let me live united with Jesus, the Blessed Virgin Mary, and you, for all eternity. Amen.
(taken from a St Gemma Holy Card) - Source: stgemmagalgani.com


Pope Francis Sends Telegram of Condolences to Queen Elizabeth II “Saddened to learn of the death of your husband Prince Philip, Duke of Edinburgh..."



Prince Philip, husband of Queen Elizabeth II, of the United Kingdom, died on Friday, April 9, 2021, at the age of 99.   He was born into the Greek and Danish royal families.  Prince Philip married Princess Elizabeth in 1947. She was crowned the British Queen in 1953. Prince Philip was the longest-serving consort in British history. He retired from public engagements in 2017 after carrying out more than 20,000 of them. Prince Philip met 5 Popes, Pius XII, John XXIII, John Paul II, Benedict XVI, and Francis

Vatican Secretary of State Cardinal Pietro Parolin  sent a telegram on behalf of Pope Francis to Queen Elizabeth II, recalling her husband’s “record of public service”.

“Saddened to learn of the death of your husband Prince Philip, Duke of Edinburgh, His Holiness Pope Francis offers heartfelt condolences to Your Majesty and the members of the royal family,” Vatican Secretary of State, Cardinal Pietro Parolin wrote in a telegram addressed to Queen Elizabeth. “Recalling Prince Philip’s devotion to his marriage and family, his distinguished record of public service and his commitment to the education and advancement of future generations, His Holiness commends him to the merciful love of Christ our redeemer,” the Cardinal wrote.  “Upon you and upon all who grieve his loss in the sure hope of the resurrection, the Holy Father invokes the Lord’s blessings of consolation and peace,” he concluded.


Canadian Catholic Bishops Letter saying "Euthanasia and assisted suicide constitute the deliberate killing of human life..." on New Law C-7 - FULL TEXT



Message from the Catholic Bishops of Canada to the Faithful on the Expansion of Euthanasia and Assisted Suicide in Canada 

I came that they may have life, and have it abundantly (John 10:10) 

Dear Brothers and Sisters in Christ, 

During this Easter season as we celebrate the resurrection of Christ and the new life we have in him, we desire to engage our Catholic faithful on a subject of crucial importance to all of us. Bill C-7 has now become law, expanding euthanasia and assisted suicide in Canada, known as “Medical Assistance in Dying” (“MAiD”). As with the 2016 legislation that decriminalized these practices across Canada, the Catholic Bishops of Canada have consistently objected to such a law and most recently its expansion through Bill C-7,1 which allows euthanasia and assisted suicide even for those whose death is not “reasonably foreseeable”. The possible pressures that will be placed on persons with mental illnesses or disabilities resulting from the most recent legislative changes are all too real, perilous and potentially destructive.2 

Our position remains unequivocal. Euthanasia and assisted suicide constitute the deliberate killing of human life in violation of God’s Commandments; they erode our shared dignity by failing to see, to accept, and accompany those suffering and dying. Furthermore, they undermine the fundamental duty we have to take care of the weakest and most vulnerable members of society. Human life must be protected from conception to natural death, at all stages and in all conditions.

 In the new and challenging situation we now face, we truly wish to acknowledge and support all those individuals and communities who continue to defend life by resisting euthanasia and assisted suicide in Canada, or by promoting life through the care of family, friends and loved ones in their suffering, or in attending to the sick and dying as a dedicated healthcare worker or as a compassionate volunteer. 

Our advocacy must continue for rapid access to mental health care, social support for people with such illnesses, and suicide prevention programs. It must include the management and social support of individuals with chronic and/or degenerative diseases, and those living in isolation at our long-term care facilities. 

 1 https://www.cccb.ca/faith-moral-issues/suffering-and-end-of-life/euthanasia-and-assisted-suicide/ 2 Congregation for the Doctrine of the Faith, Letter Samaritanus bonus (On the care of persons in the critical and terminal phases of life), 22 September 2020, introduction: “The ethical and legal boundaries that protect the selfdetermination of the sick person are transgressed by such legislation, and, to a worrying degree, the value of human life during times of illness, the meaning of suffering, and the significance of the interval preceding death are eclipsed. Pain and death do not constitute the ultimate measures of the human dignity that is proper to every person by the very fact that they are “human beings”. 

We urge you, as men and women of faith, not to lose heart. As Bishops, we will accompany you in prayer and vigilant advocacy against a “culture of death” which continues to erode the dignity of human life in our country. 

We would find it unacceptable if healthcare professionals who oppose euthanasia and assisted suicide were ever to be coerced to participate in acts which their conscience finds morally wrong. The direct killing of a person may never be considered a duty. Likewise, we are categorically opposed to allowing euthanasia and assisted suicide to take place in institutions that bear the name of Catholic. 

The experiences of families and healthcare professionals have shown us that palliative care is beneficial for a patient’s physical, emotional, and spiritual condition, especially when provided early on. Practised in a “community of care” setting, palliative care can alleviate and control pain and physical, psychological and spiritual suffering as well as loneliness and isolation, feelings of a loss of dignity, purpose and meaning, and the burden of care often experienced by family, friends and caregivers. Palliative care, and not euthanasia or assisted suicide, is the compassionate and supportive response to suffering and dying. At this point, it is important to become informed, to renew our involvement wherever we live, and to partner with members of our parish or other faith groups and organizations to continue lobbying our elected officials about these matters. Above all, we need to pray earnestly for a new outpouring of grace, so that the fear and despair experienced by many will give way to courage and hope and that all may welcome the call to support the suffering and dying in ways that reflect the loving and compassionate gaze of Jesus, the risen Lord who lives forever. 

Sincerely in the Risen Christ, 

+ Richard Gagnon Archbishop of Winnipeg 

President of the Canadian Conference of Catholic Bishops 

Signed on behalf of the members of the Permanent Council who represent all the Bishops of Canada outside Plenary Assembly meetings of the Canadian Conference of Catholic Bishops. 8 April 2021

RIP Bishop José Pedro Carlos Zilli - Death of Missionary Brazilian Bishop of Guinea Bissau from COVID



AFRICA/GUINEA BISSAU - The Bishop of Bafatà died of Covid: the first Brazilian missionary Bishop of a mission territory outside Brazil

Friday, 9 April 2021

Bissau (Agenzia Fides) - "Today it is urgent to rebuild the person, the heart of the people, because people suffer psychologically and spiritually, in addition to poverty. It is necessary to promote reconciliation and peace. Bafata is a region inhabited by many Muslims, so dialogue is necessary to work together". With these words, in an interview with Agenzia Fides (see Fides, 6/7/2001) His Exc. Mgr. José Pedro Carlos Zilli, Bishop of Bafatà, in Guinea Bissau, described the situation of the new diocese at the time of assuming his new position.

Archbishop Zilli, 67, passed away on March 31, due to complications from Covid-19 at the Cumura hospital, on the outskirts of Bissau, where he had been hospitalized for two weeks.

Bishop Zilli was a missionary of the PIME (Pontifical Institute for Foreign Missions) and before his appointment as Bishop of Bafatà he had already spent 14 years in Guinea Bissau (1985-1999) occupying various positions including parish vicar in Bafatà and regional superior of his institute. Born in 1954 in the state of Sao Paulo (Brazil), Father Zilli was the first Brazilian missionary to be appointed Ordinary of a mission territory outside Brazil.

In the interview with Fides, Bishop Zilli recalled his previous experience as a missionary in the African country, making particular reference to relations with Muslims: "During my stay we established very good relations of friendship: we had a Muslim cook who worked for us and he was an exquisite person, through him I learned to know and love Muslims. In addition, Muslims also love missionaries: especially with the war they saw that the Church loves people, without making any distinction. In general, the relationship is good. We have already worked together on some social projects, in schools, even if only in the initial phases. Some of the missionaries had a deeper relationship, especially in the medical field".

Bishop Zilli clearly announced what his pastoral priorities were as the first Bishop of the new diocese. "Christians are few and must be educated to give their testimony without fear, but with joy ... In the first place of my work agenda I put evangelization, then work for vocations, the family, social commitment , dialogue, inculturation, and many other things to come ... ". (L.M.) (Source: Agenzia Fides, 9/4/2021)


Saint April 10 : St. Fulbert Bishop of Chartres who Rebuilt the Cathedral when it Burned Down and was Devoted to Mary

 



St. Fulbert
BISHOP

Born:
between 952 and 962
Died:
10 April 1028 or 1029
Bishop, b. between 952 and 962; d. 10 April, 1028 or 1029. Mabillon and others think that he was born in Italy, probably at Rome; but Pfister, his latest biographer, designates as his birthplace the Diocese of Laudun in the present department of Gard in France. He was of humble parentage and received his education at the school of Reims, where he had as teacher the famous Gerbert who in 999 ascended the papal throne as Sylvester II. In 990 Fulbert opened a school at Chartres which soon became the most famous seat of learning in France and drew scholars not only from the remotest parts of France,  but also from Italy, Germany, and England. Fulbert was also chancellor of the church of Chartres and treasurer of St. Hilary's at Poitiers. So highly was he esteemed as a teacher that his pupils were wont to style him "venerable Socrates". He was a strong opponent of the rationalistic tendencies which had infected some dialecticians of his times, and often warned his pupils against such as extol their dialectics above the teachings of the Church and the testimony of the Bible. Still it was one of Fulbert's pupils, Berengarius of Tours, who went farthest in subjecting faith to reason. In 1007 Fulbert succeeded the deceased Rudolph as Bishop of Chartres and was consecrated by his metropolitan, Archbishop Leutheric of Sens. He owed the episcopal dignity chiefly to the influence of King Robert of France, who had been his fellow student at Reims. As bishop he continued to teach in his school and also retained the treasurership of St. Hilary. When, about 1020, the cathedral of Chartres burned down, Fulbert at once began to rebuild it in greater splendour. In this undertaking he was financially assisted by King Canute of England, Duke William of Aquitaine, and other European sovereigns. Though Fulbert was neither abbot nor monk, as has been wrongly asserted by some historians, still he stood in friendly relation with Odilo of Cluny, Richard of St. Vannes, Abbo of Fleury, and other monastic celebrities of his times. He advocated a reform of the clergy, severely rebuked those bishops who spent much of their time in warlike expeditions, and inveighed against the practice of granting ecclesiastical benefices to laymen.
Fulbert's literary productions include 140 epistles, 2 treatises, 27 hymns, and parts of the ecclesiastical Office. His epistles are of great historical value, especially on account of the light they throw on the liturgy and discipline of the Church in the eleventh century. His two treatises are in the form of homilies. The first has as its subject: Misit Herodes rex manus, ut affligeret quosdam de ecclesia, etc. (Acts 12:50); the second is entitled "Tractatus contra Judaeos" and proves that the prophecy of Jacob, "Non auferetur sceptrum de Juda", etc. (Genesis 49:10), had been fulfilled in Christ. Five of his nine extant sermons are on the blessed Virgin Mary towards whom he had a great devotion. The life of St. Aubert, bishop of Cambrai (d. 667), which is sometimes ascribed to Fulbert, was probably not written by him. Fulbert's epistles were first edited by Papire le Masson (Paris,1585). His complete works were edited by Charles de Villiers (Paris, 1608), then inserted in "Bibl. magna Patrum" (Cologne,16l8) XI, in "Bibl. maxima Patri." (Lyons, 1677), XVIII, and with additions, in Migne, P.L., CXLI, 189-368