Thursday, October 24, 2013


St. Gaudentius

Feast: October 25
Feast Day:
October 25
Brescia, Italy

Bishop of Brescia from about 387 until about 410; he was the successor of the writer on heresies, St. Philastrius. At the time of that saint's death Gaudentius was making a pilgrimage to Jerusalem. The people of Brescia bound themselves by an oath that they would accept no other bishop than Gaudentius; and St. Ambrose and other neighbouring prelates, in consequence, obliged him to return, though against his will. The Eastern bishops also threatened to refuse him Communion if he did not obey. We possess the discourse which he made before St. Ambrose and other bishops on the occasion of his consecration, in which he excuses, on the plea of obedience, his youth and his presumption in speaking. He had brought back with him from the East many precious relics of St. John Baptist and of the Apostles, and especially of the Forty Martyrs of Sebaste, relics of whom he had received at Caesarea in Cappadocia from nieces of St. Basil. These and other relics from Milan and elsewhere he deposited in a basilica which he named Concilium Sanctorum. His sermon on its dedication is extant. From a letter of St. Chrysostom (Ep. clxxxiv) to Gaudentius it may be gathered that the two saints had met at Antioch. When St. Chrysostom had been condemned to exile and had appealed to Pope Innocent and the West in 405, Gaudentius warmly took his part. An embassy to the Eastern Emperor Arcadius from his brother Honorius and from the pope, bearing letters frorn both and from Italian bishops, consisted of Gaudentius and two other bishops. The envoys were seized at Athens and sent to Constantinople, being three days on a ship without food. They were not admitted into the city, but were shut up in a fortress called Athyra, on the coast of Thrace. Their credentials were seized by force, so that the thumb of one of the bishops was broken, and they were offered a large sum of money if they would communicate with Atticus, who had supplanted St. Chrysostom. They were consoled by God, and St. Paul appeared to a deacon amongst them. They were eventually put on board an unseaworthy vessel, and it was said that the captain had orders to wreck them. However, they arrived safe at Lampsacus, where they took ship for Italy, and arrived in twenty days at Otranto. Their own account of their four months' adventures has been preserved to us by Palladius (Dialogus, 4). St. Chrysostom wrote them several grateful letters.
We possess twenty-one genuine tractates by Gaudentius. The first ten are a series of Easter sermons, written down after delivery at the request of Benivolus, the chief of the Brescian nobility, who had been prevented by ill health from hearing them delivered. In the preface Gaudentius takes occasion to disown all unauthorized copies of his sermons published by shorthand writers. These pirated editions seem to have been known to Rufinus, who, in the dedication to St. Gaudentius of his translation of the pseudo-Clementine "Recognitions", praises the intellectual gifts of thne Bishop of Brescia, saying that even his extempore speaking is worthy of publication and of preservation by posterity. The style of Gaudentius is simple, and his matter is good. His body lies at Brescia in the Church of St. John Baptist, on the site of the Concilium Sanctorum. His figure is frequently seen in the altar-pieces of the great Brescian painters, Moretto, Savoldo, and Romanino. The best edition of his works is by Galeardi (Padua, 1720, and in P.L., XX). SOURCE


Vatican Radio REPORT: Pope Francis celebrated Mass on Thursday morning in the chapel of the Domus Sanctae Marthae residence in the Vatican. In his remarks following the readings, the Holy Father focused on the universal call to holiness. 

“We have been re-made i​nChrist! What Christ has done in us is a re-creation: the blood of Christ has re-created. It is a second creation! If before the whole of our life: our body, our soul, our habits, were on the road of sin, iniquity; after this re-creation we must make the effort to walk on the path of righteousness , sanctification – use this word: holiness. All of us were baptized: at that mometn, our parents - we were just children - made the act of faith in our name: ‘I believe in Jesus Christ,’ who has forgiven us our sins’ I believe in Jesus Christ.”

The Pope went on to say that we must make this faith our own and let it be the lode star of our lives. “To live as Christians,” he said, “is to bring forth this faith in Christ, this re-creation,” and with faith carry on the works that arise from this faith - works of holiness. He said that we must carry forward, “the first sanctification that we all received in Baptism.”:

“Really we are weak and many times, many times , we commit sins, imperfections - and is this the way of sanctification? Yes and no! If you get used to it: 'My life is a bit so-so… I believe in Jesus Christ, but I live the way I want to’ Oh , no, that will not sanctify, that is wrong! It is a contradiction! If, however, you say, ‘I, even I am a sinner, I am weak,’ and if you go always to the Lord and say: ‘But, Lord, You have the strength, give me faith! You can make me clean,’ [and if] you let yourself be healed in the Sacrament of Reconciliation – yes, even our imperfections are used along the way of sanctification. But it is always a question of ‘before’ and ‘after’.”

“Before the Act of Faith, prior to acceptance of Jesus Christ, who has created us anew with His own blood,” explained Pope Francis, “we were on the road of injustice.” After Baptism and the Act of Faith, however, “we are on the path of sanctification, but we must take it seriously!” The Holy Father added that to take it seriously, we must do works of righteousness, “simple” works: “Worship God,” he said, “God is always first! And then do what Jesus advises us to help others.” The Pope said that these and similar works, “are the works that Jesus did in his life: the works of justice, works of re-creation.” “When we give food to a hungry person,” he said, “we re-create hope in him. So it is with others.” If, on the other hand, “we accept the faith and then do not live it, we are Christians only in memory.”:

“Without this awareness of the before and after of which Paul speaks to us, our Christianity does not help anyone! More to this: it takes us on the road of hypocrisy. ‘I call myself a Christian, but live like a pagan!’ Sometimes we say ‘Christians at half-speed’, who do not take this seriously. We are holy, justified, sanctified by the blood of Christ: Take this sanctification and carry it forward! Though people do not take it seriously! Lukewarm Christians: ‘But, yes, yes , but, no, no’. Neither here nor there - as our mothers said, ‘rosewater Christians’ - no! A little touch here and there, of Christian paint, a little ‘paint catechesis’ - but inside there is no true conversion, there is no such conviction as that of St.Paul: ‘Everything I gave up and I consider garbage, that I may gain Christ and be found in Him.’”

This, he said, “was Paul's passion and that is the passion of a Christian!” We must, he continued, “let go of everything that takes us away from Jesus Christ,” and make all things anew: everything is new in Christ!” “You can do it!” encouraged Pope Francis, “as did St. Paul and also many Christians,” not only the saints we know - even the anonymous saints: those who live Christianity seriously. The Pope said tha the question for us today is whether we want to live our Christianity seriously - if we want to pursue this re-creation. He invited all of us to ask St. Paul to intercede for us to obtain the gift of grace to live as Christians seriously, “to believe that we truly have been sanctified by the blood of Jesus Christ.”


VATICAN RADIO REPORT: October 23, 2013 - Pope Francis held his weekly general audience on Wednesday, dedicating it to Mary as the model of the Church. The public meeting provide pilgrims and tourists visiting Rome with a chance to see and hear the Pope, and also receive his blessing. The general audience of Oct. 23 was held in the open, in Rome’s St. Peter’s Square. It began with aides reading a passage from the Gospel of St. Luke in several languages.
Basing himself on the scripture passage, Pope Francis delivered his main discourse in Italian - summaries of which were read out by aides in various languages, including in English. But first, the aide greeted the Pope on behalf of the English-speaking pilgrims.
…Dear Brothers and Sisters: In our continuing catechesis on the Church, we now look to the Virgin Mary who, as the Second Vatican Council reminds us, is “the model of the Church in the order of faith, charity and perfect union with Christ” (Lumen Gentium, 63). As a daughter of Israel, Mary responded in faith to God’s call and became the Mother of his Son. She teaches us to live a life of faith by her obedience to God’s will and by her unfailing devotion to Jesus and his work. Mary also models the Church’s charity, born of faith, which brings the joy and peace of Christ’s presence to others and to our world. Finally, Mary models the Church’s union with Christ through her constant prayer and participation in the mysteries of his life, death and resurrection. As Mother of the Church, may Mary, by her prayers, bring us ever closer to the Lord, open our hearts to share his transforming and redeeming love, and inspire us to put our firm faith in God’s word, trusting in his goodness and his gracious plan for us and for our world.

Pope Francis then greeted the English-speaking pilgrims in Italian.

… I greet all the English-speaking pilgrims present at today’s Audience, including those from England, Ireland, Denmark, Norway, the Netherlands, India, Japan, the Philippines, Thailand, Guam, Canada and the United States. In a particular way I welcome the Usdnited Kingdom’s All-Party Parliamentary Group on the Holy See, with cordial good wishes for their meetings in these days. Upon all of you, and your families, I invoke God’s blessings of joy and peace! (BLESSING)



MARY OF NAZARETH WEBSITE RELEASE: MARY OF NAZARETH is an epic new motion picture on the life of Mary, mother of Christ, from her childhood through the Resurrection of Jesus.
This full-length feature film about the life of Our Lady, shot in English in High Definition, was filmed in Europe in very authentic locales with outstanding cinematography, a strong cast, and a majestic music score . Actress Alissa Jung gives a beautiful, compelling and inspired portrayal of Mary. Pope Benedict XVI had the opportunity to screen this film in the Apostolic Palace, and was touched by the portrayal of Mary so movingly revealed on film.
The film vividly captures the essence of Mary’s profound faith and trust in God amidst the great mysteries that she lived with as the Mother of the Messiah, her compassionate humanity and concern for others, and the deep love that she and Jesus shared for one another. This movie underscores her special role in God’s plan for our redemption, her unique relationship with Christ, and the tremendous suffering that she endured in union with his passion and death, as well as her serene joy at his Resurrection.
Directed by acclaimed European film director Giacomo Campiotti (BAKHITA, DOCTOR ZHIVAGO, ST. GIUSEPPE MOSCATI) and written by Francesco Arlanch (RESTLESS HEART, PIUS XII, POPE JOHN PAUL II), in addition to the luminous performance by Jung, the film provides inspiring portrayals of all the main roles, including Andreas Pietschmann as Jesus, Luca Marinelli as Joseph, Paz Vega as Mary Magdalene and Antonia Liskova as Herodias. The original music score was written  by Guy Farley.
Originally a 200-minute film, it has been edited down to 153 minutes for the theatrical release.
MARY OF NAZARETH will become available for sponsored screenings in theaters through Ignatius Press and Carmel Communications beginning  October 1, 2013. Don’t miss your chance to bring the life of the Mother of Christ to a theater in your town during this limited engagement!
consider hosting you own Mary of Nazarethscreening. For more information like the film’s Facebook page or visit the website at:
God bless,
Mary of Nazareth Team


Catholic Communications, Sydney Archdiocese,
23 Oct 2013
R18+ video games are often pornographic
In the past 10 years pornography has become ever more readily available. Online, via smart phone, in the latest violent R18+ rated video games and music videos, and on magazine stands at the local servo, pornography is an increasingly pervasive and disturbing presence.
Easily accessed by teenagers and children, some as young as seven and eight, pornography is fast becoming the way many of today's adolescents are learning about sexuality.

Divorced from love, intimacy and respect, increasing scientific evidence shows that pornography not only has the ability to reshape society but comes with a high social and personal cost to families, marriages and most particularly to children, says Jonathan Doyle.
"Science has finally caught up with anecdotal evidence long attributed to pornography and the dangers and adverse effects on users as well as their families," he says.
In cooperation with the Archdiocese of Sydney and the Parramatta Diocese and Diocese of Broken Bay, the well known national and international speaker on sexuality, relationships and personal development will be in Sydney this weekend to give two important lectures on the reality and risk of pornography.
Both lectures are open to the public and parents, students, educators and interested professionals are urged to attend.
Jonathon Doyle
"For centuries the Church has warned against pornography and had its position dismissed as being moralistic and judgemental. But just as the dangers of contraception with regard to oestrogen replacement are well known, science is also now proving beyond doubt the damage and danger of pornography," Jonathan says adding that many positions taken by the Church are increasingly being supported by science and shown to be beneficial to physical, mental and emotional health as well as spirituality.
Citing the most recent international research on the effects of pornography, Jonathan says the findings are virtually unanimous when it comes to the damage pornography can cause in men, women and children and to both married and single adults.
One of the leading authority's in the field, Professor Mary Anne Layden, Director of the Sexual Trauma and Psychopathology Program at University of Pennsylvania describes pornography as an ideal "teacher, permission-giver and trigger to violence and other negative behaviours and attitudes."
 As humans we learn best through images rather than words, and learn even better and faster when aroused, she says.
Whether the arousal is triggered by excitement, joy, fear, disgust or sexual tension, being in an aroused state we are more likely to remember the experience which is reinforced and further ingrained by repetition.
"This makes pornography an ideal teacher," Jonathan says and explains that increasingly as pornography becomes "edgier" and blatant, users become desensitised to pathological and illegal behaviours such as rape, prostitution, domestic violence, sexual harassment, sexual violence and fetishism and deviancy.
Spotlight boycotted by Collective Shout for promoting sexist porn Playboy empire bedlinen
"Today we know that pornography massively stimulates the release of the neurochemical striatal, D2domamine," Jonathan says adding that this is why so many adults worldwide have become addicted to pornography.
But teenagers are even more vulnerable to the effects of dopamine which not only are fired faster and in greater quantity from the ventral tegmental section of the brain but in adolescence although this part of the brain is fully developed, the frontal cortex responsible for reasoning, judgement and impulse control, is not.
Which why for teens pornography can be so damaging.
According to overseas studies, more than 70% of all boys aged 12 have already been exposed to porn and sexually explicit images. By the time boys reach 15, 100% of them have seen porn in some form or are accessing it regularly.
While girls are less likely to become addicted by the age of 16, more than 96% of them have been exposed to porn with many believing not only that porn is normal but so too is rough, violent and demeaning treatment of women and to be liked by a boy they need to be overtly sexual in the way they dress and behave.
Jonathan says the advice a few years ago to help protect children and teenagers from accessing porn online was to prevent them using their computers in their bedroom behind closed doors but instead in a living or family room where  parents could see and monitor what they were accessing.
But with the emergence of iPads, smart phones, social media and advances in communication technology knowing let alone monitoring what a child may be accessing has become impossible.
"Parents can't stop children accessing porn. It is part of life today. What they can do is inculcate the virtues into their children and for Catholic parents, begin the process of formation as early as possible," he says and urges parents to play a stronger role in their child or children's lives.
Video ready mobiles may contain quick clicks to porn sites
"Parents must provide sexual discipleship," Jonathan insists and cites Blessed John Paul II who told parents on many occasions that his father never had to be hard on him because his father had been hard on himself.
"Fathers should set an example to their children as loving husbands who respect and love their wives, and love and respect all women," he says.
Jonathan wants fathers to be more open, particularly those with sons and not to shy away from talking openly and frankly to their sons about the challenges and dangers of pornography.
"Fathers should be guides and mentors to their sons," he says and expresses his concern that for many young people, their introduction to sexuality and sexual education is by accessing pornography.
"We must let our children know how much bigger, richer and more fulfilling the landscape is when it comes to relationships, marriage, family and parenting," he says.
A father of three young children himself, with Masters degrees in Education and currently studying for a doctorate at Melbourne's John Paul II Institute for Marriage and Family, Jonathan is co-founder with his wife Karen of Choicez Media which offers information and support to parents, students, educators, professionals, clerics and the laity on contemporary issues ranging from cyber bullying to violence and pornography.
Based in Canberra, Jonathan is travelling to Sydney this weekend and give an address: Porn: Pleasure or Problem at St Patrick's Cathedral Hall, Parramatta on Saturday, 26 October from 9 until 11am.
Later the same day he will give a second lecture on "Pornography: Reality and Risk" from 2- 4 pm at Chatswood St Pius X College Gymnasium, Chatswood.
The event is sponsored by the Archdiocese of Sydney's Life, Marriage and Family Centre, the Diocese of Parramatta and the Diocese of Broken Bay. Entry is a gold coin donation. To find out more about the lectures and to read Jonathan Doyle's blogs on pornography and other contemporary issues log on to:


German Catholics sought outright dismissal for extravagant overspending
<p>Picture: AFP/DPA/Arne Dedert</p>
Picture: AFP/DPA/Arne Dedert
  • AFP
  • Vatican City
  • October 24, 2013
    The Vatican on Wednesday suspended indefinitely a German Catholic cleric dubbed the "bling bishop" for his luxury lifestyle, despite multiple calls in Germany for the prelate to be dismissed.
"The Holy See deems it appropriate to authorise a period of leave from the diocese for Franz-Peter Tebartz-van Elst," the Vatican said in a statement.
"The Holy Father has been continuously and objectively informed of the situation," it said.
"A situation has been created in which the bishop can no longer exercise his episcopal duties."
It did not specify how long the bishop would have to stay away but added that this would depend on an analysis of the finances of his Limburg diocese and the responsibilities for its high costs.
The Central Committee of German Catholics, which brings together all the Catholic lay associations in the country, said it was satisfied with the decision to suspend the bishop.
"Pope Francis' decision offers a chance at a new beginning in the diocese of Limburg where the situation has become heavy in recent weeks both for believers there and for the Church in Germany as a whole," its president Alois Glueck said.
The reformist Catholic group "Wir sind Kirche" (We are Church) said that "after the immense loss of trust caused by the behaviour" of the bishop it was "inconceivable" that he would again hold episcopal office.
The group also urged reforms in the selection process of bishops and the auditing of their finances, saying: "the Limburg case must serve as a serious warning to all German bishops concerning their actions, management and lifestyle".
The bishop flew to Rome last week with low-cost airline Ryanair to explain himself to Francis -- following accusations he took an expensive ticket on a trip to India and squandered money.
His private quarters in a new diocesan building are reported to have cost some 2.9 million euros ($3.9 million) and included a 63-square-metre dining room and a 15,000-euro bathtub -- using the revenue from a religious tax in Germany.
The reports have caused a scandal in Germany and sparked calls for greater transparency in Catholic Church finances -- a reform aim of the new pope who has called for a "poor Church for the poor".
News portal Spiegel Online, whose parent magazine has long tussled with the cleric, headlined its article with the words "The Lord taketh away", while the top-selling Bild daily declared "Limburg doesn't want the splurge-bishop back".
"The pope has already shown he can act energetically," said Marco Politi, a Vatican expert writing for the Italian weekly L'Espresso, giving the example of two Slovenian archbishops sacked for their poor financial management.
"Good management of money is essential for him," he told AFP.
The 53-year-old bishop is under fire over the ostentatious building project in the ancient town of Limburg, which includes a museum, conference halls, a chapel and private apartments.
The project was approved by his predecessor and was initially valued at 5.5 million euros but the final bill ballooned to 31 million euros, including a 783,000-euro garden.
Tebartz-van Elst is also accused of giving false statements in court about an expensive flight he took to India to visit poor communities.
Prosecutors say the bishop gave false statements under oath in a Hamburg court battle against news weekly Der Spiegel about the flights.
Anger that taxes paid to the Church by ordinary Germans are apparently being squandered has led to demonstrations outside his residence.
The embattled Tebartz-van Elst has defended the project, saying the centuries-old cathedral complex adjacent to the modernist new structure is heritage protected, complicating the development.
Critics within and outside the church have contrasted the premium architectural project with the more humble style of Pope Francis and asked how much good the money could do if used as aid in poverty-stricken African countries.
Pope Francis has made several key gestures of a more humble style since coming to office in March and has condemned big-spending clerics.
The pontiff has refused to move into the lavish papal palace in the Vatican, staying instead in the Casa Santa Marta, a residence for visitors.
He has repeatedly called for the Catholic Church and its faithful to rid themselves of earthly concerns like his name-sake, St Francis of Assisi, warning that "worldliness is a murderer because it kills souls, kills people, kills the Church." AFP



MOMBASA, October 22, 2013(CISA) -Leaders of various churches now claim that the freedom of religion is under attack after senseless killings of two evangelical pastors in Kilifi and Mombasa.
A statement issued by a group of influential evangelical Christian leaders on Monday October 21 condemned the killings and asked the Government to uphold the constitutional right to assemble and worship.
Kenya’s The Standard Newspaper reported that Mombasa County Police Commander Robert Kitur disclosed that two people, including a guard at the church, were being held over the fatal shooting of Pastor Charles Mathole of the Redeemed Gospel Church in Kisauni.
Kitur discounted claims that police had not taken any action even after being informed that unknown people had sent threatening messages to the pastor.
Officers at Nyali Police Station allegedly dismissed the death threats as hoaxes sent from convicted criminals, but Monday Kitur claimed he was not aware if any such report was made to the police.
“We normally protect mosques on Friday and churches every Sunday,” Kitur said and described the killing as “a very queer murder” whose motive has not been established.
When Pastor Charles Mathole was gunned down in Mombasa his counterpart of East Africa Pentecostal church Ibrahim Kithaka was also being attacked in Kilifi.
“The Mombasa Church Forum categorically states that no attack on Christians will deter us from our way of worship and our freedom of religion. To the perpetrators of these heinous attacks, we hereby state that we will not be intimidated and will continue to worship our Lord in our churches…,” said the statement signed by Bishops Wilfred Lai, Tom Arati, Lambert Mbela, Charles Kwake and Abarijah Kinogah.


Thursday of the Twenty-ninth Week in Ordinary Time
Lectionary: 476

Reading 1              ROM 6:19-23

Brothers and sisters:
I am speaking in human terms because of the weakness of your nature.
For just as you presented the parts of your bodies as slaves to impurity
and to lawlessness for lawlessness,
so now present them as slaves to righteousness for sanctification.
For when you were slaves of sin, you were free from righteousness.
But what profit did you get then
from the things of which you are now ashamed?
For the end of those things is death.
But now that you have been freed from sin and have become slaves of God,
the benefit that you have leads to sanctification,
and its end is eternal life.
For the wages of sin is death,
but the gift of God is eternal life in Christ Jesus our Lord.

Responsorial Psalm                  PS 1:1-2, 3, 4 AND 6

R. (Ps 40:5) Blessed are they who hope in the Lord.
Blessed the man who follows not
the counsel of the wicked
Nor walks in the way of sinners,
nor sits in the company of the insolent,
But delights in the law of the LORD
and meditates on his law day and night.
R. Blessed are they who hope in the Lord.
He is like a tree
planted near running water,
That yields its fruit in due season,
and whose leaves never fade.
Whatever he does, prospers.
R. Blessed are they who hope in the Lord.
Not so the wicked, not so;
they are like chaff which the wind drives away.
For the LORD watches over the way of the just,
but the way of the wicked vanishes.
R. Blessed are they who hope in the Lord.

Gospel                 LK 12:49-53

Jesus said to his disciples:
“I have come to set the earth on fire,
and how I wish it were already blazing!
There is a baptism with which I must be baptized,
and how great is my anguish until it is accomplished!
Do you think that I have come to establish peace on the earth?
No, I tell you, but rather division.
From now on a household of five will be divided,
three against two and two against three;
a father will be divided against his son
and a son against his father,
a mother against her daughter
and a daughter against her mother,
a mother-in-law against her daughter-in-law
and a daughter-in-law against her mother-in-law.”


St. Anthony Mary Claret
Feast: October 24
Feast Day:
October 24
December 23, 1807, Sallent
October 24, 1870, Fontfroide
May 7, 1950 by Pope Pius XII
Patron of:
Textile Merchants, Weavers, Savings (taught the poor the importance of savings), Catholic press, Claretians Missionary Sons of the Immaculate Heart of Mary.

The founder of the Missionary Sons of the Immaculate Heart of Mary, Anthony Mary Claret died in the Cistercian monastery at Fontfroide in France on this date in 1870. He was canonized in 1950 and listed in the Roman Calendar in 1960. Anthony was born at Salent in the Diocese of Vich in Catalonia, Spain, in the year in which Napoleon invaded Spain. He was trained for manual labor, since his father was a weaver, but in 1829 he entered the seminary at Vich. Ordained to the priesthood in 1835, he was assigned as pastor in his home parish. Later he went to Rome to work for the Propagation of the Faith. He also entered the novitiate of the Jesuits but had to leave because of ill health, so he returned to Spain and was assigned as pastor of a parish. His apostolate consisted of rural preaching, conferences for the clergy and publications (he wrote more than 150 books). Because of his successful apostolate he aroused the animosity of some of the clergy and as a result he left Catalonia for the Canary Islands (1848). After a year he returned to Catalonia and resumed his preaching apostolate.
In 1849 Anthony gathered together five priests who formed the basis of the Missionary Sons of the Immaculate Heart of Mary (popularly known as Claretians). At the suggestion of the Queen of Spain, Isabella II, Anthony was named archbishop of Santiago, Cuba (1850). For the next seven years he made pastoral visitations, preached against the slavery of the Negroes, and regularized numerous marriages. As a result of his activity he was frequently threatened with death and on one occasion an attempt was actually made on his life. In 1857 he was recalled to Spain as confessor to the queen. In this way he was able to exert some influence in the naming of bishops, set up a center of ecclesiastical studies at the Escorial, and work towards the recognition of religious orders in Spain. In 1869 he was in Rome, preparing for the First Vatican Council. He followed Isabella II into exile and at the insistence of the Spanish ambassador, was placed under house arrest in the Cistercian monastery at FontFroide, where he died at the age of 63. His remains were ultimately returned to Vich.